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Table 1 Socio-demographic characteristics (n = 196)

From: Quality of life and challenges experienced by the surviving adults with transfusion dependent thalassaemia in Malaysia: a cross sectional study

Characteristics n (%)
Age in yearsa 27 (7.4)
Gender  
 Male 87 (44)
 Female 109 (56)
Ethnic  
 Malay 121 (62)
 Sabah and Sarawak indigenous (e.g. Kadazan-Dusun) 40 (20)
 Chinese 35 (18)
Types of thalassaemia  
 Beta thalassaemia major 126 (64)
 HbE beta thalassaemia 59 (30)
 HbH disease 11 (6)
Types of comorbidity (n = 179)  
 Musculoskeletal 23 (13)
 Endocrine 21 (12)
 Cardiovascular 6 (3)
 Blood infection 4 (2)
 Psychological 4 (2)
 Multiple 16 (9)
 Others 6 (3)
Medication  
 Iron chelators 191 (97)
 Hormonal medication 110 (56)
 Cardiac medication 8 (4)
 More than 1 group of medication 157 (80)
Mode of administration of iron chelating agents  
 Subcutaneous only 25 (13)
 Oral only 78 (40)
 Combined oral and subcutaneous 88 (45)
 None needed 5 (3)
Frequency of hospital visits (n = 194)  
 Once a month 80 (41)
 Twice a month 70 (36)
 More than twice a month 44 (23)
Monthly income (n = 172, included those participants with a previous employment)  
 Less than RM1000 62 (36)
 Between RM1000 and RM2000 60 (35)
 More than RM2000 21 (12)
 Unemployed 24 (14)
  1. aMean (SD)