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Table 4 Results from multiple linear regression analysis of change in HRQoL from baseline to 6-month follow-up (adjusted for value of each scale at baseline; β is the regression coefficient)

From: Risk factors for poor health-related quality of life in patients with colon cancer include stoma and smoking habits

Scale Global health status (QL2) Physical function (PF2) Role function (RF2)
β (95% CI) P β (95% CI) P β (95% CI) P
Male sex 0.54 (− 4.60, 5.68) 0.836 2.84 (− 1.35, 7.04) 0.183 1.33 (− 5.64, 8.30) 0.707
Age (years) 0.08 (− 0.20, 0.36) 0.576 0.08 (− 0.15, 0.31) 0.491 0.19 (− 0.20, 0.57) 0.339
Smoker − 6.24 (− 15.3, 2.77 0.174 − 6.57 (− 13.8, 0.66) 0.075 − 18.0 (− 30.2, − 5.77) 0.004
BMI (kg/m2) − 0.34 (− 0.94, 0.26) 0.261 − 0.53 (− 1.02, − 0.05) 0.032 − 0.73 (− 1.55, 0.10) 0.085
ASA 1–2 5.58 (− 0.27, 11.4) 0.062 0.88 (− 4.08, 5.84) 0.727 0.62 (− 7.35, 8.60) 0.878
Emergency 0.40 (− 7.85, 8.65) 0.924 − 0.35 (− 6.96, 6.25) 0.917 8.20 (− 3.14, 19.5) 0.156
TNM I–III 1.61 (− 7.29, 10.5) 0.722 − 0.28 (− 7.53, 6.97) 0.939 0.89 (− 11.5, 13.2) 0.888
Stoma w/ resection 6.37 (− 0.51, 13.3) 0.069 − 0.04 (− 5.46, 5.39) 0.990 2.45 (− 6.74, 11.6) 0.600
Stoma w/o resection − 7.75 (− 30.49, 14.99) 0.503 3.94 (− 13.96, 21.83) 0.665 − 9.48 (− 43.0, 24.1) 0.578
Scale Emotional function (EF) Cognitive function (CF) Social function (SF)
β (95% CI) P β (95% CI) P β (95% CI) P
Male sex 2.22 (− 2.74, 7.17) 0.379 1.23 (− 3.64, 6.09) 0.620 − 1.44 (− 7.69, 4.82) 0.651
Age (years) 0.31 (0.03, 0.58) 0.029 0.12 (− 0.15, 0.38) 0.378 0.35 (0.001, 0.69) 0.049
Smoker − 9.05 (− 17.6, − 0.45) 0.039 − 7.30 (− 15.8, 1.18) 0.091 − 13.9 (− 24.9, − 2.93) 0.013
BMI (kg/m2) − 0.22 (− 0.79, 0.35) 0.457 − 0.57 (− 1.13, − 0.003) 0.049 − 0.45 (− 1.18, 0.28) 0.228
ASA 1–2 4.37 (− 1.17, 9.91) 0.122 − 1.53 (− 7.01, 3.95) 0.583 2.05 (− 5.02, 9.13) 0.568
Emergency − 3.77 (− 11.6, 4.02) 0.342 1.02 (− 6.63, 8.66) 0.794 − 2.47 (− 12.5, 7.51) 0.626
TNM I–III − 3.85 (− 12.3, 4.65) 0.373 1.64 (− 6.77, 10.04) 0.702 − 2.92 (− 13.8, 7.93) 0.597
Stoma w/ resection − 0.15 (− 6.71, 6.40) 0.963 − 3.63 (− 10.0, 2.75) 0.264 − 3.46 (− 11.8, 4.84) 0.413
Stoma w/o resection − 7.69 (− 29.07, 13.70) 0.480 − 19.6 (− 40.4, 1.27) 0.066 − 21.5 (− 51.7, 8.79) 0.163
Scale Fatigue (FA) Nausea/vomiting (NV) Pain (PA)
β (95% CI) P β (95% CI) P β (95% CI) P
Male sex − 2.01 (− 7.57, 3.56) 0.478 − 0.98 (− 4.26, 2.31) 0.559 − 5.24 (− 11.2, 0.76) 0.087
Age (years) − 0.30 (− 0.61, 0.00) 0.052 − 0.21 (− 0.39, − 0.03) 0.024 0.16 (− 0.17, 0.49) 0.348
Smoker 10.8 (0.99, 20.7) 0.031 7.47 (1.77, 13.2) 0.010 10.4 (− 0.12, 20.93) 0.053
BMI (kg/m2) 0.23 (0.41, 0.88) 0.478 0.52 (0.14, 0.90) 0.007 0.80 (0.10, 1.50) 0.025
ASA 1–2 − 5.90 (− 12.2, 0.43) 0.068 − 0.16 (− 3.84, 3.52) 0.932 − 1.99 (− 8.77, 4.79) 0.564
Emergency − 9.61 (− 18.4, − 0.78) 0.033 1.52 (− 3.69, 6.74) 0.566 − 8.02 (− 17.5, 1.45) 0.097
TNM I–III − 8.63 (− 18.3, 1.06) 0.081 − 1.72 (− 7.37, 3.94) 0.551 7.64 (− 2.74, 18.01) 0.148
Stoma w/ resection − 0.25 (− 7.68, 7.17) 0.947 0.57 (− 3.75, 4.89) 0.795 0.04 (− 7.89, 7.98) 0.992
Stoma w/o resection − 1.01 (− 25.2, 23.2) 0.935 22.5 (8.09, 39.9) 0.002 36.6 (10.6, 62.6) 0.006
Scale Dyspnoea (DY) Insomnia (SL) Appetite loss (AP)
β (95% CI) P β (95% CI) P β (95% CI) P
Male sex 3.81 (− 2.05, 9.66) 0.202 − 12.3 (− 18.8, − 5.82) < 0.001 − 4.14 (− 10.1, 1.82) 0.173
Age (years) − 0.22 (− 0.54, 0.10) 0.180 − 0.25 (− 0.60, 0.11) 0.172 − 0.41 (− 0.73, − 0.08) 0.014
Smoker 1.64 (− 8.79, 12.1) 0.757 9.16 (− 2.22, 20.5) 0.114 5.35 (− 4.99, 15.70) 0.309
BMI (kg/m2) 0.63 (− 0.08, 1.33) 0.080 0.64 (− 0.12, 1.39) 0.099 0.23 (− 0.46, 0.91) 0.519
ASA 1–2 − 6.68 (− 13.6, 0.22) 0.058 − 1.63 (− 8.99, 5.74) 0.664 − 3.19 (− 9.88, 3.50) 0.349
Emergency 5.56 (− 3.78, 14.9) 0.242 − 3.58 (− 13.8, 6.69) 0.493 − 2.00 (− 11.4, 7.37) 0.674
TNM I–III − 5.43 (− 15.5, 4.68) 0.291 4.78 (− 6.49, 16.05) 0.404 6.22 (− 3.99, 16.4) 0.231
Stoma w/ resection − 5.22 (− 13.03, 2.58) 0.189 0.262 (− 8.30, 8.83) 0.952 − 6.01 (− 13.9, 1.92) 0.137
Stoma w/o resection − 1.18 (− 26.2, 23.8) 0.926 − 9.11 (− 37.4, 19.1) 0.526 15.4 (− 10.6, 41.3) 0.246
Scale Constipation (CO) Diarrhoea (DI) Financial difficulties (FI)
β (95% CI) P β (95% CI) P β (95% CI) P
Male sex − 2.68 (− 7.53, 2.17) 0.277 − 4.40 (− 10.6, 1.81) 0.164 − 0.73 (− 5.30, 3.85) 0.755
Age (years) − 0.25 (− 0.51, 0.13) 0.062 − 0.49 (− 0.83, − 0.15) 0.005 − 0.15 (− 0.41, 0.10) 0.233
Smoker 1.99 (− 6.48, 10.5) 0.643 14.2 (3.32, 25.1) 0.011 8.57 (0.43, 16.7) 0.039
BMI (kg/m2) − 0.03 (− 0.59, 0.53) 0.922 0.50 (− 0.22, 1.23) 0.173 0.58 (0.05, 1.11) 0.032
ASA 1–2 − 5.31 (− 10.8, 0.18) 0.058 − 4.09 (− 11.1, 2.91) 0.251 1.84 (− 3.32, 6.99) 0.483
Emergency − 1.07 (− 8.88, 6.74) 0.788 0.10 (− 10.1, 10.3) 0.985 1.31 (− 6.05, 8.67) 0.727
TNM I–III 2.98 (− 5.31, 11.3) 0.480 3.33 (− 7.66, 14.3) 0.551 0.21 (− 7.66, 8.08) 0.958
Stoma w/ resection − 8.38 (− 14.8, − 1.98) 0.010 4.11 (− 4.19, 12.2) 0.331 − 0.31 (− 6.36, 5.73) 0.919
Stoma w/o resection 16.5 (− 4.01, 37.0) 0.114 − 18.5 (− 48.1, 11.1) 0.220 20.6 (1.10, 40.0) 0.038
  1. The highest observed Variance Inflation Factor was 1.448. R2-values: QL2 0.299, PF2 0.215, RF2 0.422, EF 0.280, CF 0.239, SF 0.266, FA 0.354, NV 0.470, PA 0.419, DY 0.346, SL 0.286, AP 0.496, CO 0.596, DI 0.563, FI 0.099, Significant P values are given in bold
  2. ASA American Society of Anaesthesiologists, BMI body mass index, CI confidence interval, HRQoL health-related quality of life, TNM tumour–node–metastasis