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Table 4 Associations between independent variables with specific dimension of HRQoL at univariate analysis (n = 366)

From: Health-related quality of life profiles and their dimension-specific associated factors among Malaysian stroke survivors: a cross sectional study

Variables Mobility Self-care Usual activities Pain/discomfort Anxiety/depression
With problems No problems With problems No problems With problems No problems With problems No problems With problems No problems
(n = 311) (n = 55) (n = 150) (n = 216) (n = 299) (n = 67) (n = 231) (n = 135) (n = 188) (n = 178)
Age           
< 60 years 141 (83) 29 (17) 62 (37) 108 (64) 143 (84) 27 (16) 114 (67) 56 (33) 99 (58) 71 (42)
≥ 60 years 170 (87) 26 (13) 88 (45) 108 (55) 156 (80) 40 (20) 117 (60) 79 (40) 89 (45) 107 (55)
P-value 0.311 0.102 0.264 0.145 0.014
Sex           
Female 143 (89) 18 (11) 68 (42) 93 (58) 129 (80) 32 (20) 104 (65) 57 (35) 88 (55) 73 (45)
Male 168 (82) 37 (18) 82 (40) 123 (60) 170 (83) 35 (17) 127 (62) 78 (38) 100 (49) 105 (51)
P-value 0.068 0.666 0.491 0.603 0.264
Marital status           
Married 231 (85) 41 (15) 106 (39) 166 (61) 223 (82) 49 (18) 170 (63) 102 (37) 136 (50) 136 (50)
Single 18 (82) 4 (18) 11 (50) 11 (50) 17 (77) 5 (23) 15 (68) 7 (32) 14 (64) 8 (36)
Divorced 10 (83) 2 (17) 6 (50) 6 (50) 11 (92) 1 (8) 11 (92) 1 (8) 10 (83) 2 (17)
Widowed 52 (87) 8 (13) 27 (45) 33 (55) 48 (80) 12 (20) 35 (58) 25 (42) 28 (47) 32 (53)
P-value 0.954 0.573 0.749 0.166 0.073
Education           
Tertiary 34 (81) 8 (19) 15 (36) 27 (64) 32 (76) 10 (24) 25 (60) 17 (40) 22 (52) 20 (48)
Secondary 171 (87) 25 (13) 76 (39) 120 (61) 165 (84) 31 (16) 132 (67) 64 (33) 99 (51) 97 (49)
Primary 106 (83) 22 (17) 59 (46) 69 (54) 102 (80) 26 (20) 74 (58) 54 (42) 67 (52) 61 (48)
P-value 0.408 0.323 0.366 0.193 0.94
Working status           
Employed 27 (64) 15 (36) 6 (14) 36 (86) 25 (60) 17 (41) 32 (76) 10 (24) 19 (45) 23 (55)
Unemployed 284 (88) 40 (12) 144 (44) 180 (56) 274 (85) 50 (15) 199 (61) 125 (39) 169 (52) 155 (48)
P-value  < 0.001  < 0.001  < 0.001 0.062 0.398
Income           
< MYR 3000 67 (84) 13 (16) 25 (31) 55 (69) 61 (76) 19 (24) 52 (65) 28 (35) 38 (48) 42 (52)
≥ MYR 3000 244 (85) 42 (15) 125 (44) 161 (56) 238 (83) 48 (17) 179 (63) 107 (37) 150 (52) 136 (48)
P-value 0.729 0.045 0.154 0.693 0.434
Number of comorbidities           
0–2 133 (85) 23 (15) 61 (39) 95 (61) 127 (81) 29 (19) 96 (62) 60 (38) 81 (52) 75 (48)
3–4 162 (86) 27 (14) 79 (42) 110 (58) 156 (83) 33 (17) 120 (64) 69 (36) 94 (50) 95 (50)
≥ 5 16 (76) 5 (24) 10 (48) 11 (52) 16 (76) 5 (24) 15 (71) 6 (29) 13 (62) 8 (38)
P-value 0.507 0.718 0.769 0.67 0.562
Obesity           
No 233 (88) 31 (12) 122 (46) 142 (54) 228 (86) 36 (14) 168 (64) 96 (36) 142 (54) 122 (46)
Yes 78 (77) 24 (23) 28 (28) 74 (72) 71 (70) 31 (30) 63 (62) 39 (38) 46 (45) 56 (55)
P-value 0.005 0.001  < 0.001 0.739 0.136
Smoking status           
Never smoke 194 (86) 32 (14) 93 (41) 133 (59) 182 (81) 44(19) 149 (66) 77 (34) 120 (53) 106 (47)
Ex-smoker 101 (88) 14 (12) 51 (44) 64 (56) 98 (85) 17 (15) 68 (59) 47 (41) 56 (49) 59 (51)
Smoking 16 (64) 9 (36) 6 (24) 19 (76) 19 (76) 6 (24) 14 (56) 11 (44) 12 (48) 13 (52)
P-value 0.009 0.172 0.427 0.351 0.7
Types of strokes           
Ischaemic 237 (83) 47 (17) 112 (39) 172 (61) 226 (80) 58 (20) 181 (64) 103 (36) 141 (50) 143 (50)
Haemorrhagic 74 (90) 8 (10) 38 (46) 44 (54) 73 (89) 9 (11) 50 (61) 32 (39) 47 (57) 35 (43)
P-value 0.129 0.263 0.051 0.649 0.221
Time since stroke           
< 12 months 155 (83) 32 (17) 68 (36) 119 (64) 151 (81) 36 (19) 119 (64) 68 (36) 98 (52) 89 (48)
≥ 12 months 156 (87) 23 (13) 82 (46) 97 (54) 148 (83) 31 (17) 112 (63) 67 (37) 90 (50) 89 (50)
P-value 0.254 0.066 0.633 0.833 0.683
Number of stroke episodes           
First 244 (84) 48 (16) 108 (37) 184 (63) 235 (81) 57 (19) 178 (61) 114 (39) 145 (50) 147 (50)
Recurrent 67 (91) 7 (9) 42 (57) 32 (43) 64 (87) 10 (13) 53 (72) 21 (28) 43 (58) 31 (42)
P-value 0.133 0.002 0.233 0.09 0.194
Location of stroke           
Left 153 (86) 25 (14) 71 (40) 107 (60) 146 (82) 32 (18) 113 (64) 65 (36) 90 (51) 88 (49)
Right 111 (84) 22 (16) 57 (43) 76 (57) 111 (84) 22 (16) 90 (68) 43 (32) 73(55) 60 (45)
Unspecified 44 (86) 7 (14) 21 (41) 30 (59) 40 (78) 11 (22) 26 (51) 25 (49) 22 (43) 29 (57)
Bilateral 3 (75) 1 (25) 1 (25) 3 (75) 2 (50) 2 (50) 2 (50) 2 (50) 3 (75) 1 (25)
P-value 0.722 0.899 0.31 0.166 0.406
Aphasia           
No 205 (83) 41 (17) 82 (33) 164 (67) 185 (75) 61 (25) 163 (66) 83 (34) 120 (49) 126 (51)
Yes 106 (88) 14 (12) 68 (57) 52 (43) 114 (95) 6 (5) 68 (57) 52 (43) 68 (57) 52 (43)
P-value 0.209 < 0.001 < 0.001 0.074 0.156
Malnutrition risk           
Low 171 (79) 45 (21) 64 (30) 152 (70) 161 (75) 55 (25) 137 (63) 79 (37) 99 (46) 117 (54)
High 140 (93) 10 (7) 86 (57) 64 (43) 138 (92) 12 (8) 94 (63) 56 (37) 89 (59) 61 (41)
P-value < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 0.882 0.011
Physical activity           
Moderate to high 99 (78) 28 (22) 21 (17) 106 (83) 87 (69) 40 (31) 88 (69) 39 (31) 60 (47) 67 (53)
Low 212 (89) 27 (11) 129 (54) 110 (46) 212 (89) 27 (11) 143 (60) 96 (40) 128 (54) 111 (46)
P-value 0.006 < 0.001 < 0.001 0.074 0.25
Respondents           
Patient 221 (83) 44 (17) 80 (30) 185 (70) 202 (76) 63 (24) 173 (65) 92 (35) 120 (45) 145 (55)
Proxy 90 (89) 11 (11) 70 (69) 31 (31) 97 (96) 4 (4) 58 (57) 43 (43) 68 (67) 33 (33)
P-value 0.172 < 0.001 < 0.001 0.164 < 0.001
Wheelchair user           
No 207 (79) 55 (21) 55 (21) 207 (79) 196 (75) 66 (25) 166 (63) 96 (37) 122 (47) 140 (53)
Yes 104 (100) 0 (0) 95 (91) 9 (9) 103 (99) 1 (1) 65(63) 39 (37) 66 (64) 38 (36)
P-value < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 0.878 0.004
  1. High malnutrition risk = MRST-H scores ≥ 2 points; Low malnutrition risk = MRST-H scores < 2 points; Moderate to high physical activity level = IPAQ scores ≥ 600 MET-min/week; Low physical activity level = IPAQ scores < 600 MET-min/week; Obesity = Body mass index ≥ 27.5 kg/m2; Comorbidities = hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia, ischaemic heart disease, atrial fibrillation, chronic kidney diseases, liver diseases, pulmonary diseases, arthritis, gout, Parkinson, and mood disorder; Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test was applied with significance level set at p < 0.05
  2. MET, metabolic equivalent of task values; MRST-H, Malnutrition Risk Screening Tool-Hospital; IPAQ, International Physical Activity Questionnaire