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Table 3 PCS and MCS and their demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle predictors in the univariate analyses

From: Health-related quality of life in a general population sample in Kazakhstan and its sociodemographic and occupational determinants

Variable PCS MCS
Beta Beta 95% CI p Beta Beta 95% CI p
Age − 0.20 − 0.23; − 0.17 < 0.001 − 0.07 − 0.09; − 0.04 < 0.001
Sex (reference—male) − 2.19 − 3.05; − 1.34 < 0.001 − 3.38 − 4.30; − 2.46 < 0.001
Education (reference—secondary or high school) − 0.49 − 1.57; 0.59 0.38 − 0.85 − 2.02; 0.36 0.15
Monthly income (reference—below 10,000 tenge) 3.20 2.31; 4.08 < 0.001 1.15 0.17; 2.12 < 0.05
Current cigarette smoking (reference—never or former) 1.50 0.52; 2.48 < 0.01 1.31 0.25; 2.37 < 0.05
Exposure to SHS (reference—no) 2.40 1.54; 3.27 < 0.001 0.82 − 0.13; 1.77 0.09
Waterpipe smoking (reference—no) 5.44 4.00; 6.88 < 0.001 1.48 − 0.11; 3.06 0.07
Electronic cigarette use (reference—no) 4.67 2.16; 7.19 < 0.001 1.67 − 1.05; 4.43 0.23
Regular physical activity (reference—no) 2.48 1.55; 3.40 < 0.001 2.27 1.26; 3.27 < 0.001
Alcohol use (reference—never) 1.48 0.62; 2.34 < 0.001 − 0.04 − 0.97; 0.90 0.94
  1. PCS physical component score, MCS mental component score, SHS secondhand smoke, CI confidence interval