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Table 3 Mean CHU-9D-CHN utility value by each level of PedsQL dimension

From: An assessment of the construct validity of the Child Health Utility 9D-CHN instrument in school-aged children: evidence from a Chinese trial

PedsQL dimensions Level n (%) Mean (SD) CHU9D utility p-value*
Physical functioning     
Walking trouble Never 963 (62.5) 0.948 (0.063)  < 0.001
  Hardly ever 148 (9.6) 0.927 (0.072)  
  Sometimes 273 (17.8) 0.920 (0.074)  
  Often 80 (5.2) 0.927 (0.063)  
  Almost always 75 (4.9) 0.902 (0.083)  
Running trouble Never 1101 (71.5) 0.947 (0.061)  < 0.001
  Hardly ever 189 (12.3) 0.918 (0.071)  
  Sometimes 184 (11.9) 9.912 (0.083)  
  Often 49 (3.1) 0.909 (0.088)  
  Almost always 16 (1.2) 0.887 (0.076)  
Exercise trouble Never 1078 (70.1) 0.948 (0.061)  < 0.001
  Hardly ever 171(11.1) 0.919 (0.077)  
  Sometimes 217 (14.1) 0.918 (0.072)  
  Often 40 (2.6) 0.904 (0.095)  
  Almost always 33 (2.1) 0.879 (0.087)  
Carrying trouble Never 674 (43.8) 0.950 (0.060)  < 0.001
  Hardly ever 183 (11.9) 0.920 (0.079)  
  Sometimes 437 (28.4) 0.932 (0.069)  
  Often 129 (8.4) 0.928 (0.075)  
  Almost always 116 (7.5) 0.921 (0.073)  
Showering trouble Never 1280 (83.2) 0.943 (0.064)  < 0.001
  Hardly ever 106 (6.8) 0.913 (0.073)  
  Sometimes 72 (4.7) 0.908 (0.081)  
  Often 38 (2.5) 0.935 (0.071)  
  Almost always 43 (2.8) 0.870 (0.096)  
Housework trouble Never 1087 (70.7) 0.948 (0.061)  < 0.001
  Hardly ever 157 (10.3) 0.913 (0.078)  
  Sometimes 189 (12.2) 0.917 (0.074)  
  Often 48 (3.1) 0.922 (0.071)  
  Almost always 58 (3.7) 0.883 (0.093)  
Feeling pain Never 1056 (68.7) 0.951 (0.058)  < 0.001
  Hardly ever 149 (9.7) 0.909 (0.080)  
  Sometimes 287 (18.6) 0.912 (0.074)  
  Often 36 (2.3) 0.899 (0.092)  
  Almost always 11 (0.7) 0.837 (0.134)  
Feeling tired Never 1044 (67.8) 0.949 (0.059)  < 0.001
  Hardly ever 135 (8.8) 0.923 (0.068)  
  Sometimes 292 (18.9) 0.917 (0.070)  
  Often 46 (3.1) 0.873 (0.106)  
  Almost always 22 (1.4) 0.842 (0.122)  
Emotional functioning     
Feeling fearful Never 965 (62.7) 0.949 (0.059)  < 0.001
  Hardly ever 142 (9.2) 0.928 (0.071)  
  Sometimes 303 (19.7) 0.921 (0.071)  
  Often 82 (5.3) 0.910 (0.085)  
  Almost always 47 (3.1) 0.871 (0.105)  
Feeling sad Never 1114 (72.4) 0.949 (0.058)  < 0.001
  Hardly ever 128 (8.3) 0.916 (0.069)  
  Sometimes 247 (16.1) 0.908 (0.078)  
  Often 37 (2.4) 0.886 (0.103)  
  Almost always 13 (0.8) 0.824 (0.143)  
Feeling angry Never 923 (59.9) 0.953 (0.054)  < 0.001
  Hardly ever 154 (10.1) 0.925 (0.074)  
  Sometimes 338 (22.0) 0.921 (0.070)  
  Often 92 (6.0) 0.885 (0.095)  
  Almost always 32 (2.0) 0.850 (0.111)  
Feeling insomnia Never 997 (64.7) 0.951 (0.056)  < 0.001
  Hardly ever 118 (7.6) 0.926 (0.074)  
  Sometimes 243 (15.9) 0.913 (0.078)  
  Often 120 (7.8) 0.905 (0.084)  
  Almost always 61 (4.0) 0.883 (0.087)  
Feeling worried Never 949 (61.7) 0.951 (0.060)  < 0.001
  Hardly ever 134 (8.7) 0.932 (0.067)  
  Sometimes 330 (21.4) 0.917 (0.074)  
  Often 72 (4.7) 0.899 (0.080)  
  Almost always 54 (3.5) 0.886 (0.086)  
Social functioning     
Difficulties socialising Never 1138 (73.9) 0.946 (0.061)  < 0.001
  Hardly ever 149 (9.7) 0.917 (0.079)  
  Sometimes 189 (12.3) 0.913 (0.079)  
  Often 45 (2.9) 0.906 (0.075)  
  Almost always 18 (1.2) 0.860 (0.105)  
Other children did not want to socialise Never 927 (60.3) 0.949 (0.060)  < 0.001
  Hardly ever 199 (12.9) 0.926 (0.072)  
  Sometimes 311 (20.2) 0.918 (0.074)  
  Often 71 (4.6) 0.916 (0.075)  
  Almost always 31 (2.0) 0.885 (0.096)  
Other children mocked Never 1104 (71.7) 0.947 (0.060)  < 0.001
  Hardly ever 180 (11.7) 0.919 (0.074)  
  Sometimes 195 (12.7) 0.913 (0.078)  
  Often 39 (2.5) 0.883 (0.101)  
  Almost always 21 (1.4) 0.882 (0.083)  
Inability to socialise Never 947 (61.6) 0.949 (0.058)  < 0.001
  Hardly ever 189 (12.4) 0.924 (0.076)  
  Sometimes 325 (21.1) 0.920 (0.074)  
  Often 49 (3.1) 0.890 (0.094)  
  Almost always 29 (1.8) 0.887 (0.089)  
Difficulties for tracking Never 961 (62.5) 0.949 (0.060)  < 0.001
  Hardly ever 155 (10.1) 0.928 (0.065)  
  Sometimes 327 (21.2) 0.919 (0.074)  
  Often 66 (4.3) 0.911 (0.084)  
  Almost always 30 (1.9) 0.867 (0.117)  
School functioning     
Difficulties concentrating Never 921 (59.9) 0.951 (0.057)  < 0.001
  Hardly ever 142 (9.3) 0.919 (0.068)  
  Sometimes 347 (22.5) 0.918 (0.077)  
  Often 85 (5.5) 0.917 (0.073)  
  Almost always 44 (2.8) 0.883 (0.113)  
Difficulties memorising Never 761 (49.4) 0.952 (0.061)  < 0.001
  Hardly ever 194 (12.7) 0.923 (0.081)  
  Sometimes 423 (27.5) 0.928 (0.065)  
  Often 120 (7.8) 0.916 (0.067)  
  Almost always 41 (2.6) 0.883 (0.084)  
Difficulties studying/catching Never 959 (62.4) 0.951 (0.058)  < 0.001
  Hardly ever 174 (11.3) 0.919 (0.068)  
  Sometimes 302 (19.6) 0.918 (0.074)  
  Often 64 (4.1) 0.906 (0.081)  
  Almost always 40 (2.6) 0.869 (0.104)  
Absent from school due to sickness Never 1062 (69.1) 0.942 (0.065)  < 0.001
  Hardly ever 139 (9.0) 0.927 (0.071)  
  Sometimes 298 (19.4) 0.932 (0.068)  
  Often 36 (2.3) 0.884 (0.114)  
  Almost always 4 (0.2) 0.892 (0.083)  
Absent from school due to hospitalisation Never 1079 (70.2) 0.942 (0.065)  < 0.001
  Hardly ever 169 (10.9) 0.930 (0.074)  
  Sometimes 265 (17.3) 0.925 (0.070)  
  Often 16 (1.0) 0.902 (0.094)  
  Almost always 10 (0.6) 0.872 (0.110)  
  1. *Non-parametric test for trend
  2. SD standard deviation