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Table 3 Hierarchical regression analysis showing associations between fear of COVID-19 (independent variable) and general health, psychological distress and quality of life (dependent variables)

From: Quality of life and fear of COVID-19 in 2600 baccalaureate nursing students at five universities: a cross-sectional study

Models Standardized coefficient (95% CIa) P value
General health   
FCV-19S: Unadjusted estimate − 0.23 (− 0.27, − 0.20) < 0.001
FCV-19S: Adjusted estimate − 0.13 (− 0.17, − 0.09) < 0.001
Psychological distress (SCL-5)   
FCV-19S: Unadjusted estimate 0.51 (0.47, 0.54) < 0.001
FCV-19S: Adjusted estimate 0.38 (0.34, 0.41) < 0.001
Overall quality of life   
FCV-19S: Unadjusted estimate − 0.27 (− 0.30, − 0.23) < 0.001
FCV-19S: Adjusted estimate − 0.09 (− 0.13, − 0.06) < 0.001
  1. FCV-19S: Fear of COVID-19 scale. Psychological distress as measured by the SCL-5: The five item Hopkins symptom checklist. Cluster effects are accounted for in the unadjusted analysis, while the adjusted analyses are adjusted for years in nursing school, age, living alone or not, times tested for COVID-19, history of a positive COVID-19 test, quarantine status related to COVID-19, at risk for COVID-19 complications or not, level of trust in governmental handling of the COVID-19 situation, level of trust in universities’ handling of the COVID-19 situation, feeling of loneliness due to COVID-19 and whether or not the student has engaged in clinical practice during the pandemic. All dependent variables have been transformed to z-scores. Unstandardized regression coefficients
  2. aCI confidence interval