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Table 2 Descriptive characteristics of the participants

From: Feasibility, reliability and validity of the health-related quality of life instrument Child Health Utility 9D (CHU9D) among school-aged children and adolescents in Sweden

Characteristics Total
n (%)
School stages
Grades 1–3
n (%)
Grades 4–6
n (%)
Grades 7–9
n (%)
Sample 473 (100) 168 (35) 146 (31) 159 (34)
Sex
 Girls 249 (54) 90 (54) 75 (53) 84 (54)
 Boys 216 (46) 78 (46) 66 (47) 72 (46)
Children’s country of birth
 Not Sweden 37 (8) 15 (9) 12 (8) 10 (6)
 Sweden 436 (92) 153 (91) 134 (92) 149 (94)
Parents’ country of birth
 None Sweden 61 (13) 26 (15) 20 (14) 15 (9)
 One Sweden 49 (10) 20 (12) 20 (14) 9 (6)
 Both Sweden 363 (77) 122 (73) 106 (72) 135 (85)
Custody arrangement
 Not living with both parents 86 (19) 19 (13) 33 (23) 34 (22)
 Living with both parents 366 (81) 130 (87) 112 (77) 124 (78)
Family affluence1
 Low (< 25percentile) 69 (16) 24 (18) 23 (16) 22 (14)
 Middle (25-75percentile) 288 (66) 86 (62) 95 (67) 107 (69)
 High (> 75percentile) 79 (18) 28 (20) 24 (17) 27 (17)
General health2
 Not good 64 (15) 14 (12) 16 (11) 34 (22)
 Good 78 (19) 16 (14) 26 (19) 36 (23)
 Very good 270 (66) 86 (74) 99 (70) 85 (55)
Long-term illness/disability
 Yes 218 (47) 59 (36) 70 (49) 89 (58)
 No 243 (53) 107 (64) 72 (51) 64 (42)
  Mean (SD)
Median (IQR)
Mean (SD)
Median (IQR)
Mean (SD)
Median (IQR)
Mean (SD)
Median (IQR)
Health related quality of life
 KIDSCREEN-103 41.17 (6.10)
42.00 (38.00–46.00)
41.91 (5.44)
42.00 (38.00–46.00)
42.27 (5.89)
43.00 (39.00–47.00)
39.59 (6.45)
40.00 (36.00–45.00)
 CHU9D (child algorithm)3 0.74 (0.21)
0.79 (0.59–0.91)
0.80 (0.18)
0.86 (0.70–0.95)
0.75 (0.20)
0.79 (0.62–0.89)
0.65 (0.23)
0.66 (0.49–0.85)
 CHU9D (adult algorithm)3 0.85 (0.11)
0.87 (0.78–0.93)
0.88 (0.10)
0.91 (0.83–0.95)
0.86 (0.10)
0.88 (0.80–0.93)
0.81 (0.11)
0.82 (0.75–0.90)
 PedsQL3
 Total score 82.12 (12.94)
84.78 (75.00–92.39)
81.21 (13.74)
83.70 (72.83–91.30)
85.35 (10.57)
88.04 (79.55–94.57)
80.10 (13.57)
81.52 (71.74–89.13)
 Physical health 84.85 (13.52)
87.50 (78.12–93.75)
83.62 (14.86)
87.50 (75.00–96.87)
87.42 (11.20)
90.63 (81.25–96.88)
83.76 (13.73)
87.50 (78.13–93.75)
 Psychosocial health 80.64 (14.33)
83.33 (73.33–91.67)
79.94 (14.99)
81.67 (71.67–91.67)
84.21 (11.82)
86.67 (76.67–93.33)
78.09 (15.13)
80.00 (71.67–90.00)
 Emotional functioning 75.66 (19.03)
80.00 (65.00–90.00)
76.94 (17.54)
80.00 (65.00–90.00)
78.24 (18.32)
80.00 (65.00–90.00)
71.93 (20.66)
75.00 (60.00–90.00)
 Social functioning 88.06 (14.74)
95.00 (80.00–100.0)
83.60 (17.33)
87.50 (75.00–95.00)
92.10 (10.17)
95.00 (85.00–100.0)
89.03 (14.16)
95.00 (85.00–100.0)
 School functioning 78.31 (16.46)
80.00 (70.00–90.00)
79.34 (15.95)
80.00 (70.00–90.00)
82.45 (13.44)
85.00 (75.00–90.00)
73.44 (18.27)
75.00 (65.00–85.00)
  1. IQR inter quartile range, SD standard deviation
  2. 1Low (< 25 percentile) = 2–7 points, Middle (25–75 percentile) = 8–10 points; High (> 75 percentile) = scores 11–13 points on the 0–13-point Family Affluence Scale
  3. 2Information on general health was only collected in grades 2–9
  4. 3Higher score means higher health related quality of life