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Table 4 The sociodemographic, family functioning and dental caries status characteristics by the ECOHIS scores (total  ≤ 6 and > 6)

From: Role of family functioning and health-related quality of life in pre-school children with dental caries: a cross-sectional study

Variables ECOHIS Scores
mean (SD)
ECOHIS ≤ 6
n (%)
ECOHIS > 6
n (%)
Total
n (%)
P value
Total 1.72 (0.44) 78 (54.2) 66 (45.8) 144 (100)  
Age      
 4 years 0.45 (0.47) 37 (58.7) 26 (41.3) 63 (100) 0.462
 5 years 0.65 (0.51) 18 (46.2) 21 (53.8) 39 (100)  
 6 years 0.53 (0.50) 23 (54.8) 19 (45.2) 42 (100)  
Gender      
 Male 0.55 (0.51) 32 (50.8) 31 (49.2) 63 (100) 0.474
 Female 0.51 (0.48) 46 (56.8) 35 (43.2) 81 (100)  
Siblings      
 No siblings 0.47 (0.42) 16 (61.5) 10 (38.5) 26 (100) 0.068
 One sibling 0.51 (0.53) 48 (59.3) 33 (40.7) 81 (100)  
 Two or more 0.61 (0.45) 14 (37.8) 23 (62.2) 37 (100)  
Relationship to child      
 Father 0.42 (0.43) 35 (68.6) 16 (31.4) 51 (100) 0.010
 Mother 0.59 (0.52) 50 (46.2) 43 (53.8) 93 (100)  
Monthly income      
 Up to RM 5000 0.53 (0.57) 16 (51.6) 15 (48.4) 31 (100) 0.747
 More than RM5000 0.53 (0.47) 62 (54.9) 51 (45.1) 113 (100)  
Family functioning: GF 12      
 Good family functioning 0.46 (0.47) 69 (59.0) 48 (41.0) 117 (100) 0.016
 Poor family functioning 0.82 (0.52) 9 (33.3) 18 (66.7) 27 (100)  
Dental caries status      
 Caries free 0.33 (0.39) 53 (72.6) 20 (27.4) 73 (100)  < 0.001
 Caries 0.73 (0.51) 25 (35.2) 46 (64.8) 71 (100)