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Table 2 Quality assessment of the process for cross-cultural adaptations of the National Institutes of Health chronic prostatitis symptom

From: A systematic review of cross-cultural adaptation of the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index

Language-population Forward translation Synthesis Back translation Expert committee review Pretesting Appraisal of the Adaptation Process
Arabic-Egyptian [18]  +   +  0  + 
Chinese-Mainland [19]  +  ? 0 0  + 
Chinese-Malaysian [20] ?  +  0 0  + 
Danish [21] ?  +   +   + 
Estonian [22]  +   +   + 
Finnish [23]  +   +  ?  + 
French-Canadian [24]  +  0  + 
German (1,2) [25, 26] ?  +  ? 0  + 
Italian [27]  +   +   +  ?  + 
Japanese (a) [28]  +  0 0 0  + 
Japanese (b) [29]  +  0 0  + 
Malaysian [20] ?  +  0 0  + 
Persian [30]  +  ? 0  + 
Portuguese-Brazilian [31]  +   +   +   +   +   + 
Spanish [32]  +   +   +   + 
Turkish [33] ?  +   +  ?  + 
  1.  +  = Positive rating; ? = doubtful design or method;—= negative rating; 0 = no information available; German (1,2), two German publications with the same adaptation; Japanese (a) and Japanese (b), two different Japanese adaptations