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Table 1 Description and analysis of QOL among empty nesters in Shanxi China

From: Exploring the influencing factors of quality of life among the empty nesters in Shanxi, China: a structural equation model

Characteristics N (%) QOL score (mean ± SD) t/F P
Gender     
 Male 2546 (51.95) 64.59 ± 17.21 5.291  < 0.001
 Female 2355 (48.05) 61.99 ± 17.16   
Age     
 60–69 2440 (49.79) 65.34 ± 16.66 51.381  < 0.001
 70–79 1910 (38.97) 62.47 ± 17.30   
 80– 551 (11.24) 57.51 ± 17.93   
Residence     
 Urban 1714 (34.97) 66.26 ± 16.92 8.790  < 0.001
 Rural 3187 (65.03) 61.78 ± 17.20   
Education     
 No formal education 1500 (30.61) 59.10 ± 17.05 39.872  < 0.001
 Primary school 1573 (32.10) 63.12 ± 16.85   
 Secondary school 1068 (21.79) 65.67 ± 16.54   
 High school 531 (10.83) 68.59 ± 17.44   
 Junior college 111 (2.26) 70.75 ± 15.35   
 University or higher 118 (2.41) 68.66 ± 17.89   
Marital status     
 Married 3341 (68.17) 64.84 ± 17.07 27.066  < 0.001
 Single (never married, divorced, widowed) 1560 (31.83) 60.39 ± 16.59   
Monthly income     
 None 1676 (34.20) 58.80 ± 17.22 86.308  < 0.001
  < 1000 RMB 1371 (27.97) 63.16 ± 16.18   
 1000–3000 RMB 1287 (26.26) 66.48 ± 16.61   
  > 3000 RMB 567 (11.57) 70.09 ± 17.45   
Smoking status     
 Never 3214 (65.58) 62.97 ± 17.25 2.178 0.113
 Quit smoking 709 (14.47) 64.11 ± 17.08   
 Smoking 978 (19.95) 64.01 ± 17.29   
Drinking status     
 Never 3417 (69.72) 62.61 ± 17.40 6.997  < 0.001
 Occasionally 1168 (23.83) 64.98 ± 16.66   
 Often 206 (4.20) 64.79 ± 16.92   
 Every day 110 (2.25) 66.10 ± 17.24   
Exercise frequency     
 None 1304 (26.61) 58.67 ± 17.83 92.062  < 0.001
 1–2 times per week 1663 (33.93) 61.72 ± 16.21   
 3–5 times per week 1208 (24.65) 66.67 ± 16.06   
 6 or more times per week 726 (14.81) 69.93 ± 17.22   
Physical examination frequency     
 Never 380 (7.75) 62.74 ± 16.81 57.857  < 0.001
 Irregular 2256 (46.03) 62.85 ± 16.82   
 Regular physical examination every few years 925 (18.88) 69.50 ± 16.85   
 Annual physical examination 1340 (27.34) 60.10 ± 17.24   
Attention the daily healthy diet     
 No 152 (3.10) 56.02 ± 17.95 44.939  < .0001
 Less 1326 (27.06) 59.82 ± 17.39   
 More 2547 (51.97) 64.35 ± 16.83   
 Most 876 (17.87) 67.02 ± 16.76   
Participation in social activities     
 None 730 (14.89) 58.89 ± 19.06 37.517  < 0.001
 Low 2309 (47.11) 62.39 ± 17.14   
 Moderate 1445 (29.49) 66.18 ± 16.06   
 High 417 (8.51) 66.63 ± 16.04   
Relationship with spouse     
 Have no spouse or bad 591 (12.06) 57.02 ± 17.02 86.996  < 0.001
 Close 4310 (87.94) 64.67 ± 16.89   
Relationship with children     
 Have no children or bad 537 (10.95) 54.54 ± 17.19 107.049  < 0.001
 Close 4364 (89.05) 65.07 ± 16.72