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Table 1 Association of sociodemographic characteristics with both symptoms and SOC in engaging in healthy behavior

From: Relationship between symptoms and both stage of change in adopting a healthy life style and quality of life in patients with liver cirrhosis: a cross-sectional study

Sociodemographic characteristics n (%) Symptom p SOC in engaging in exercise p SOC in engaging in consumption of F&V p
Not engaged (precontemplation, contemplation, and preparation) Engaged (action and maintenance) Not engaged (precontemplation, contemplation, and preparation) Engaged (action and maintenance)
Mean (SD) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%)
Sex  
 Male 51 (56.0) 31.7 (24.8)   45 (69.23) 19 (73.08)   46 (56.8) 5 (50.0)  
 Female 40 (44.0) 35.9 (24.8) 0.427 20 (30.77) 7 (26.92) 0.803 35 (43.2) 5 (50.0) 0.744
Age, years  
 < 65 64 (70.3) 33.1 (23.7)   45 (69.2) 19 (73.1)   57 (70.4) 7 (70.0)  
 ≥ 65 27 (29.7) 34.7 (27.6) 0.788 20 (30.8) 7 (26.9) 0.803 24 (29.6) 3 (30.0) 0.999
Marital status  
 No spouse 26 (28.6) 37.5 (26.0)   21 (32.3) 5 (19.2)   22 (27.2) 4 (40.0)  
 With spouse 65 (71.4) 32.0 (24.3) 0.343 44 (67.7) 21 (80.8) 0.305 59 (72.8) 6 (60.0) 0.463
Practice a religion  
 No 30 (33.0) 36.2 (24.5)   23 (35.4) 7 (26.9)   26 (32.1) 4 (40.0)  
 Yes 61 (67.0) 32.3 (25.0) 0.483 42 (64.6) 19 (73.1) 0.472 55 (67.9) 6 (60.0) 0.724
Current job  
 No 54 (59.3) 40.0 (27.7)   40 (61.5) 14 (53.8)   47 (58.0) 7 (70.0)  
 Yes 37 (40.7) 24.2 (15.9) 0.001 25 (38.5) 12 (46.2) 0.637 34 (42.0) 3 (30.0) 0.520
Monthly household income, $  
 < 2000 47 (51.6) 39.6 (28.7)   32 (49.2) 15 (57.7)   39 (48.1) 2 (20.0)  
 ≥ 2000 44 (48.4) 27.1 (17.8) 0.014 33 (50.8) 11 (42.3) 0.495 42 (51.9) 8 (80.0) 0.092
Residence
 City or town 31 (34.1) 36.0 (25.2)   20 (30.8) 11 (42.3)   27 (33.3) 4 (40.0)  
 Metropolitan 60 (65.9) 32.3 (24.7) 0.510 45 (69.2) 15 (57.7) 0.333 54 (66.7) 6 (60.0) 0.730
National Health Service  
 Health insurance 65 (71.4) 30.2 (21.8)   47 (72.3) 18 (69.2)   60 (74.1) 5 (50.0)  
 Medical aid 26 (28.6) 42.1 (29.8) 0.037 18 (27.7) 8 (30.8) 0.801 21 (25.9) 5 (50.0) 0.142
Number of family members living together  
 ≤ 2 55 (60.4) 34.4 (26.7)   37 (56.9) 18 (69.2)   49 (60.5) 6 (60.0)  
 ≥ 3 36 (39.6) 32.4 (21.9) 0.706 28 (43.1) 8 (30.8) 0.346 32 (39.5) 4 (40.0) 0.999
  1. p values in bold type show statistically significant results. SOC, stage of change; F&V, fruits and vegetables; SD, standard deviation