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Table 2 Physical and Mental component summary of HRQoL in IHD Patients according to Health Literacy Levels

From: Association of health literacy and medication adherence with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with ischemic heart disease

Variables Health related quality of life (HRQoL) components
PCS-12 (mean ± SD) MCS-12 (mean ± SD)
Health literacy
Inadequate Adequate p value Inadequate Adequate p value
Age       
< 65 years 26.53 ± 8.64 37.62 ± 12.54 0.001** 39.47 ± 14.99 49.06 ± 11.97 0.001**
> 65 years 27.46 ± 7.90 39.83 ± 10.47 0.001** 42.17 ± 13.75 47.00 ± 10.37 0.26
Gender       
Male 28.46 ± 9.76 37.62 ± 11.97 0.001** 42.30 ± 12.67 49.32 ± 11.25 0.002*
Female 24.68 ± 5.78 40.92 ± 12.65 0.008* 37.57 ± 16.57 44.61 ± 12.99 0.248
Residence area       
Urban 27.02 ± 8.49 37.80 ± 12.50 0.001** 41.16 ± 14.97 48.51 ± 11.85 0.001**
Rural 25.16 ± 7.97 41.26 ± 5.90 0.001** 33.52 ± 10.39 49.07 ± 9.26 0.014*
Educational status   36.68 ± 13.48 0.045* 39.79 ± 15.03 51.19 ± 10.20 0.01*
No—primary education 25.97 ± 8.28 38.47 ± 11.83 0.263 44.34 ± 9.99 47.99 ± 11.85 0.281
Secondary—higher education 35.00 ± 4.84      
Socioeconomic status       
Upper 30.13 ± 8.27 45.87 ± 6.59 0.026* 42.83 ± 0.52 49.75 ± 9.27 0.026*
Middle 31.05 ± 9.97 37.07 ± 11.91 0.055 45.54 ± 11.99 47.74 ± 12.64 0.523
Lower 25.97 ± 7.96 38.05 ± 12.87 0.001** 39.22 ± 15.12 49.49 ± 10.73 0.001**
Employment status       
Employed 30.79 ± 10.22 41.10 ± 12.56 0.001** 45.36 ± 14.09 50.71 ± 11.73 0.111
Un-employed 25.83 ± 7.68 33.47 ± 9.97 0.001** 38.97 ± 14.59 33.24 ± 9.98 0.016*
Type of Ischemic condition       
Angina 28.67 ± 10.50 38.24 ± 12.86 0.081 40.49 ± 13.17 48.47 ± 10.93 0.120
Myocardial infarction 26.32 ± 7.81 38.13 ± 12.01 0.001** 40.13 ± 15.07 48.59 ± 11.78 0.001**
History of revascularization       
Yes 27.87 ± 8.09 37.21 ± 12.45 0.001** 45.83 ± 12.81 49.61 ± 11.09 0.200
No 26.44 ± 8.54 39.44 ± 11.56 0.001** 38.38 ± 14.82 47.13 ± 12.26 0.006*
Time since first ischemic episode (years)       
≤ 5 27.42 ± 9.34 37.66 ± 13.15 0.001** 41.42 ± 15.06 48.66 ± 11.41 0.002*
> 5 25.5 ± 6.38 39.87 ± 6.76 0.001** 36.89 ± 12.52 48.24 ± 12.55 0.017*
Other CVD conditions       
0 26.88 ± 8.65 38.13 ± 12.37 0.001** 40.73 ± 12.86 48.91 ± 11.80 0.001**
 ≥ 1 20.01 ± 5.72 38.43 ± 3.77 0.008* 35.64 ± 28.38 43.25 ± 3.77 0.658
Clinical CVD risk factors       
0–1 28.47 ± 8.86 39.99 ± 13.44 0.004* 42.45 ± 12.36 43.57 ± 11.65 0.747
2 26.52 ± 9.08 37.43 ± 10.88 0.001** 40.49 ± 17.35 52.00 ± 10.47 0.001**
≥ 3 25.43 ± 7.14 37.08 ± 12.39 0.003* 37.79 ± 13.84 49.56 ± 11.57 0.002*
Medication adherence       
Adherent 25.99 ± 10.5 34.91 ± 11.31 0.0235* 42.29 ± 14.88 51.3 ± 10.12 0.0053*
Non-adherent 27.36 ± 8.71 38.12 ± 11.69
  1. SD standard deviation, CVD ardiovascular disease
  2. *p ≤ 0.05–0.002, **≤ 0.001–0.0001