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Table 3 Distribution of the Patient Enablement Instrument for Back Pain (PEI-BP) scores at baseline based on 272 patients with non-specific low back pain (the GLA:D® Back cohort)

From: The patient enablement instrument for back pain: reliability, content validity, construct validity and responsiveness

Item Response categories, N (%) Missing
N (%)
Skewness* Kurtosis#
To a very low degree           To a very high degree
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Q1: Handle your everyday life 1 (0.4) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 7 (2.6) 5 (1.9) 32 (11.8) 24 (8.8) 39 (14.3) 56 (20.6) 52 (19.1) 55 (20.2) 1 (0.4) −0.7 3.2
Q2: Understand your back problem 6 (2.2) 4 (1.5) 10 (3.7) 11 (4.0) 17 (6.3) 25 (9.2) 26 (9.6) 36 (13.2) 44 (16.2) 45 (16.5) 43 (15.8) 5 (1.8) −0.8 2.9
Q3: Manage your back problem 0 (0.0) 1 (0.4) 11 (4.0) 12 (4.4) 16 (5.9) 29 (10.7) 34 (12.5) 41 (15.1) 50 (18.4) 41 (15.1) 32 (11.8) 5 (1.8) −0.5 2.5
Q4: Keep your back in good health 6 (2.2) 7 (2.6) 18 (6.6) 20 (7.4) 28 (10.3) 52 (19.1) 33 (12.1) 31 (11.4) 34 (12.5) 25 (9.2) 12 (4.4) 6 (2.2) −0.2 2.4
Q5: Feel confident with your health 5 (1.8) 7 (2.6) 26 (9.6) 18 (6.6) 20 (7.4) 42 (15.4) 22 (8.1) 25 (9.2) 41 (15.1) 35 (12.9) 27 (9.9) 4 (1.5) −0.3 2.0
Q6: Manage your life independently 0 (0.0) 2 (0.7) 1 (0.4) 3 (1.1) 7 (2.6) 11 (4.0) 7 (2.6) 20 (7.4) 39 (14.3) 63 (23.2) 117 (43.0) 2 (0.7) −1.7 5.9
  1. *A measure of the degree and direction of asymmetry of a distribution. A symmetric (normal) distribution has a skewness of 0, and a distribution skewed to the left has a negative coefficient (e.g. when the median is greater than the mean)
  2. #A measure of tailedness of a distribution. A normal distribution has a coefficient of kurtosis of 3, the smaller the coefficient of kurtosis, the flatter the distribution