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Table 2 Patient reported baseline characteristics for the cohorts of participants with non-specific low back pain

From: The patient enablement instrument for back pain: reliability, content validity, construct validity and responsiveness

  Content validity cohort
N = 14
GLA:D® Back baseline cohort N = 272 Test–retest cohort
N = 37
Age, mean (SD, years) 56 (8) 53 (12) 52 (13)
Males, N (%) 3 (21) 57 (21) 13 (35)
Highest achieved education, N (%)    
 No qualification 0 1 (0.4) 2 (5)
 Public school 0 14 (5) 0 (0)
 High school 0 9 (3) 0 (0)
 Vocational training 10 75 (28) 7 (19)
 Higher education < 3 years 1 37 (14) 3 (8)
 Higher education 3–4 years 2 100 (37) 18 (49)
 Higher education > 4 years 1 26 (10) 6 (16)
 Missing 0 10 (4) 1 (3)
Back pain intensity (0–10 Numeric Rating Scale), mean (SD) 4.1 (2.1) 5.0 (2.3) 5.9 (2.4)
 Missing (%) 0 1 (0.4) 0
Leg pain intensity (0–10 Numeric Rating Scale), mean (SD) 7 (5.0)* 2.8 (2.7) 3.1 (2.7)
 Missing (%) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
Episode duration, N (%)    
 0–2 weeks 0 18 (7)  < 1 week = 5 (14)
 2–4 weeks 0 11 (4) 1–4 weeks = 4 (11)
 4–12 weeks 2 18 (7) 5 (14)
 3–12 months 1 52 (19) 6 (16)
 > 1 year 11 172 (63) 17 (46)
 Missing 0 1 (0.4) 0 (0)
Number of previous episodes, N (%)    
 0 episodes 1 67 (25) 3 (8)
 1 episode 1 48 (18) 3 (8)
 2–3 episodes 0 53 (19) 6 (16)
 > 3 episodes 12 103 (38) 25 (68)
 Missing 0 1 (0.4) 0 (0)
Patient Enablement Instrument for back pain (0–60), mean (SD)   41.8 (10.8) 39.6 (13.3)
 Missing, N (%) [any of 6 items missing]   11 (4) 0 (0)
STarT Back Tool score, N (%)    
 Low risk [any of 9 items missing]   156 (57) 19 (51)
 Medium risk   68 (25) 8 (22)
 High risk   48 (18) 8 (22)
 Missing (items)   7 (3) 2 (5)
 Oswestry Disability Index (0–100), mean (SD)   22.5 (11.6) 22.4 (15.6)
 Missing, N (%) [≥ 4 of 10 items missing]   0 (0) 0 (0)
 Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (0–80), mean (SD)   40.7 (11.0)  
 Missing, N (%) [≥ 3 of 8 items missing]   2 (1)  
 Fear Avoidance Belief Questionnaire—physical activity (0–24), mean (SD)   8.3 (5.4)  
 Missing N (%) (any of 4 items missing)   7 (3)  
SF-36 subscales    
 Mental health (0–100), mean (SD)   72.4 (16.9)  
 Missing, N (%) [any of 5 items missing]   6 (2)  
 Social functioning limited by physical
health
  1.8 (0.9)  
 Missing, N (%)   0 (0)  
  1. SF-36 = Short Form 36
  2. *Leg pain yes/no, N (%)