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Table 4 Predictors of HRQOL in older adults patients with DM

From: The differences in health-related quality of life between younger and older adults and its associated factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Indonesia

Variables β t p value
Steps 1
Constant   12.720  < 0.001
DSM 0.030 0.487 0.627
DD  − 0.204  − 3.197 0.002*
Depression  − 0.346  − 5.314  < 0.00*
Self-efficacy 0.219 3.299 0.001*
Family support 0.007 0.110 0.912
Adjusted R2 = 0.314; F = 19.62 and p < 0.001  
Step 2
Constant   11.440  < 0.001
DSM 0.064 1.039 0.300
DD  − 0.210  − 3.324 0.001*
Depression  − 0.356  − 5.468  < 0.001*
Self-efficacy 0.211 3.215 0.002*
Family support 0.005 0.081 0.935
Gender  − 0.039  − 0.604 0.546
Marital status  − 0.057  − 0.933 0.352
Level of education 0.011 0.176 0.861
Employment status 0.083 1.246 0.214
Income 0.144 2.280 0.024
Adjusted R2 = 0.336; F = 11.27 and p < 0.001  
Step 3
Constant   7.707  < 0.001
DSM 0.062 0.989 0.324
DD  − 0.207  − 3.114 0.002*
Depression  − 0.365  − 5.431  < 0.001*
Self-efficacy 0.202 2.998 0.003*
Family support  − 0.006  − 0.098 0.922
Gender  − 0.021  − 0.292 0.770
Marital status  − 0.055  − 0.856 0.393
Level of education 0.001 0.019 0.985
Employment status 0.090 1.308 0.192
Income 0.140 2.138 0.034*
BMI (kg/m2)  − 0.050  − 0.816 0.416
Duration of DM  − 0.005  − 0.090 0.928
Smoking status  − 0.042  − 0.660 0.510
Number of diabetes-related complications 0.013 0.214 0.831
Fasting blood glucose  − 0.043  − 0.715 0.475
Hypertension  − 0.013  − 0.194 0.846
Type of DM medication 0.053 0.840 0.402
Adjusted R2 = 0.321; F = 6.64 and p < 0.001  
  1. In the first block, DSM, DD, depression, self-efficacy, and family support were entered into analysis. In the second block, demographical factors were jointly entered into analysis. In the third block, clinical data were jointly entered
  2. DSM is diabetes self-management, DD is diabetes distress, BMI is body mass index