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Table 3 Predictors of HRQOL in younger adults patients with DM

From: The differences in health-related quality of life between younger and older adults and its associated factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Indonesia

Variables β t p value
Steps 1
Constant   14.895  < 0.001
DSM 0.155 3.537  < 0.001*
DD  − 0.295  − 6.236  < 0.001*
Depression  − 0.153  − 3.270 0.001*
Self-efficacy 0.175 3.974  < 0.001*
Family support 0.035 0.831 0.407
Adjusted R2 = 0.264; F = 32.38 and p < 0.001  
Step 2
Constant   14.537  < 0.001
DSM 0.146 3.327 0.001*
DD  − 0.303  − 6.371  < 0.001*
Depression  − 0.144  − 3.102 0.002*
Self-efficacy 0.162 3.675  < 0.001*
Family support 0.036 0.867 0.386
Gender  − 0.009  − 0.200 0.842
Marital status  − 0.040  − 0.957 0.339
Level of education 0.119 2.737 0.006*
Employment status 0.088 1.856 0.064
Income 0.076 1.802 0.072
Adjusted R2 = 0.281; F = 18.04 and p < 0.001
Step 3
Constant   9.981  < 0.001
DSM 0.122 2.765 0.006*
DD  − 0.288  − 5.827  < 0.001*
Depression  − 0.118  − 2.498 0.013*
Self-efficacy 0.133 2.974 0.003*
Family support 0.035 0.830 0.407
Gender  − 0.011  − 0.234 0.815
Marital status  − 0.033  − 0.805 0.421
Level of education 0.097 2.228 0.026*
Employment status 0.094 1.991 0.047*
Income 0.081 1.910 0.057
BMI (kg/m2) 0.044 1.051 0.294
Duration of DM  − 0.070  − 1.630 0.104
Smoking status 0.067 1.555 0.121
Number of diabetes-related complications  − 0.106  − 2.364 0.019*
Fasting blood glucose  − 0.051  − 1.252 0.211
Hypertension 0.007 0.147 0.883
Type of DM medication 0.047 1.127 0.260
Adjusted R2 = 0.293; F = 11.64, and p < 0.001
  1. In the first block, DSM, DD, depression, self-efficacy, and family support were entered into the analysis. In the second block, demographical factors were jointly entered into the analysis. In the third block, clinical data were jointly entered
  2. DSM diabetes self-management, DD diabetes distress, BMI body mass index
  3. *p < 0.05