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Table 1 Subject characteristics according to age

From: The differences in health-related quality of life between younger and older adults and its associated factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Indonesia

Characteristic Younger adults Older adults p value
(18–64) years (≥ 65) years
(N = 435) (N = 206)
Mean (± SD) or n (%) Mean (± SD) or n (%)
Age 55. 32 ± 6.80 70.00 ± 4.60  
Gender    0.008*
Male 86 (19.77) 60 (29.13)  
Female 349 (80.23) 146 (70.87)  
Marital status     < 0.001*
Single/never married 8 (1.84) 2 (0.97)  
Married 375 (86.21) 139 (67.48)  
Widowed 52 (11.95) 65 (31.55)  
Level of education    0.032*
Illiterate 32 (7.36) 11 (5.34)  
Elementary school 271 (62.30) 105 (50.98)  
Junior High School 61 (14.02) 39 (18.94)  
Senior High School 49 (11.26) 27 (13.10)  
College or higher 22 (5.06) 24 (11.65)  
Employment status    0.219
Employed 186 (42.76) 92 (44.66)  
Unemployed 249 (57.24) 114 (55.34)  
Income    0.032*
Low income (less than USD 138 per month) 389 (89.43) 171(83.00)  
Middle income (USD 138–177 per month) 36 (8.28) 31(15.06)  
High income (higher than USD 177 per month) 10 (2.29) 4 (1.94)  
BMI 24.32 ± 4.70 22.90 ± 4.20  < 0.001*
Duration of DM     < 0.001*
Less than 1 year 49 (11.26) 10 (4.85)  
1–5 years 238 (54.71) 99 (48.05)  
6–10 years 96 (22.07) 50 (24.27)  
More than 10 years 52 (11.96) 47 (22.81)  
Smoking status    0.295
Yes 25 (5.75) 16 (7.77)  
No 410 (94.25) 190 (92.23)  
Hypertension    0.70
Yes 278 (63.91) 143 (69.42)  
No 157 (36.09) 63 (30.58)  
Number of diabetes related complications    0.009*
No complications 191(43.90) 66 (32.03)  
One complication 157 (36.10) 93 (45.14)  
Two or more complications 87 (20.0) 47 (22.81)  
Fasting blood glucose (mg/dl) 116 ± 8.90 104 ± 42.70 0.001*
Type of DM medication 0.526
No medication 26 (5.98) 17 (8.25)  
Insulin 375 (86.20) 177 (85.93)  
Oral medication 15 (3.45) 4 (1.94)  
Oral medication and insulin 19 (4.37) 8 (3.88)  
  1. Data are expressed as group mean (SD) or percentage
  2. Classification of income was according to minimum regional wage
  3. DM diabetes mellitus
  4. *p < 0.05