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Table 5 Differential Item Functioning (DIF) by gender

From: Validation of the German version of the Family Reported Outcome Measure (FROM-16) to assess the impact of disease on the partner or family member

Test all items, anchor all items. DIF Statistics for Graded Items
Item numbers and description in: Group 1 Group 2 Total X2 d.f p X2a d.f p X2c|a d.f p
1. I feel worried 1 1 1.3 3 0.7370 0.9 1 0.3349 0.3 2 0.8455
2. I feel angry 2 2 2.8 3 0.4297 0.4 1 0.5332 2.4 2 0.3054
3. I feel sad 3 3 4.5 3 0.2100 1.5 1 0.2230 3 2 0.2187
4. I feel frustrated 4 4 1.1 3 0.7806 0.1 1 0.7755 1 2 0.6054
5. It is difficult to find someone to talk to 5 5 1.1 3 0.7715 0.3 1 0.5634 0.8 2 0.6742
6. Caring for my family member is difficult 6 6 0.7 3 0.8768 0.7 1 0.4138 0 2 0.9920
7. It is hard to find time for myself 7 7 1.1 3 0.7810 0.1 1 0.8194 1 2 0.5971
8. My every day travel is affected 8 8 1.7 3 0.6403 0.4 1 0.5501 1.3 2 0.5151
9. My eating habits are affected 9 9 4.1 3 0.2515 0.1 1 0.8035 4 2 0.1322
10. My family activities are affected 10 10 2 3 0.5747 1.3 1 0.2592 0.7 2 0.6998
11. I experience problems with going on holiday 11 11 2.5 3 0.4713 1.6 1 0.2082 0.9 2 0.6264
12. My sex life is affected 12 12 4.2 3 0.2435 0 1 0.8998 4.2 2 0.1242
13. My work or study is affected 13 13 4.4 3 0.2195 2.5 1 0.1177 2 2 0.3736
14. My relationships with other family members are affected 14 14 0.3 2 0.8460 0.1 1 0.7198 0.2 1 0.6503
15. My family expenses are increased 15 15 1.5 3 0.6919 0.5 1 0.4871 1 2 0.6143
16. My sleep is affected 16 16 2.7 3 0.4495 1.5 1 0.2142 1.1 2 0.5768
  1. p values are for the Wald χ2-statistic that tests the difference between reference and focal group item parameters
  2. χ2a for slope (discrimination)
  3. χ2c/a for location
  4. Significant DIF = p < 0.05