Skip to main content

Table 6 Performance of the EQ-5D-3L in screening for comorbid anxiety (GAD-2 ≥ 3) with any depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 ≥ 10), and comorbid anxiety (GAD-2 ≥ 3) with moderate-severe depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 ≥ 15)

From: The performance of the EQ-5D-3L in screening for anxiety and depressive symptoms in hospital and community settings

Cut-point HOSPITAL SETTING (N = 492) COMMUNITY SETTING (N = 400)
 ≥ 2  ≥ 3  ≥ 2  ≥ 3
Anxiety (GAD-2 ≥ 3) & any depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 ≥ 10)     
EQ-5D-3L Anxiety/depression dimension     
 Sensitivity 78.3% 18.1% 92.3% 23.1%
 Specificity 65.1% 96.6% 77.5% 97.3%
 LR+  2.24 5.25 4.11 8.63
 LR− 0.33 0.85 0.10 0.79
 PPV 31.3% 52.0% 22.2% 37.3%
 NPV 93.7% 85.3% 99.3% 94.8%
 AUROC (95% CI) 0.74 (0.68, 0.79)  0.86 (0.80, 0.92)
EQ-5D-3L index score tertiles     
 Sensitivity 48.8% 11.9% 15.4% 0.0%
 Specificity 31.9% 65.0% 38.0% 70.9%
 LR+  0.72 0.34 0.25 0.00
 LR− 1.61 1.36 2.23 1.41
 PPV 12.7% 6.5% 1.7% 0.0%
 NPV 75.4% 78.4% 86.7% 91.1%
 AUROC (95% CI) 0.36 (0.30, 0.41)  0.24 (0.19, 0.30)
EQ-VAS score tertiles     
 Sensitivity 48.2% 9.6% 26.9% 7.7%
 Specificity 31.5% 72.2% 32.4% 70.1%
 LR+  0.70 0.35 0.40 0.26
 LR− 1.65 1.25 2.26 1.32
 PPV 12.5% 6.6% 2.7% 1.8%
 NPV 74.9% 79.7% 86.4% 91.6%
 AUROC (95% CI) 0.36 (0.31, 0.42)  0.28 (0.19, 0.37)
Anxiety (GAD-2 ≥ 3) & moderate-severe depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 ≥ 15)     
EQ-5D-3L Anxiety/depression dimension     
 Sensitivity 80.8% 17.3% 100.0% 40.0%
 Specificity 62.3% 95.4% 74.9% 96.9%
 LR+  2.14 3.79 3.98 13.00
 LR− 0.31 0.87 0.00 0.62
 PPV 20.3% 30.8% 6.8% 19.1%
 NPV 96.5% 90.7% 100.0% 98.9%
 AUROC (95% CI) 0.73 (0.67, 0.79)  0.91 (0.87, 0.95)
EQ-5D-3L index score tertiles     
 Sensitivity 45.3% 11.3% 10.0% 0.0%
 Specificity 32.8% 66.5% 39.7% 72.1%
 LR+  0.67 0.34 0.17 0.00
 LR− 1.67 1.33 2.26 1.39
 PPV 7.4% 3.9% 0.3% 0.0%
 NPV 83.5% 86.3% 96.0% 97.5%
 AUROC (95% CI) 0.35 (0.29, 0.42)  0.23 (0.16, 0.31)
EQ-VAS score tertiles     
 Sensitivity 40.4% 3.9% 28.6% 14.3%
 Specificity 32.0% 72.8% 34.2% 71.3%
 LR+  0.59 0.14 0.43 0.50
 LR− 1.87 1.32 2.09 1.20
 PPV 6.6% 1.7% 0.8% 0.9%
 NPV 81.9% 86.5% 96.3% 97.8%
 AUROC (95% CI) 0.32 (0.26, 0.38)  0.32 (0.12, 0.52)
  1. LR+, positive likelihood ratio; LR−, negative likelihood ratio; AUROC, area under receiver operating curve. EQ-5D-3L index score tertiles: 2 = quintile 2, 3 = quintile 3. EQ-5D-3L anxiety/depression dimension: 2 = moderately anxious or depressed, 3 = extremely anxious or depressed. PPV, positive predictive value; NPV, negative predictive value. Bolded values indicate the cut-point that maximizes sensitivity and specificity for each component