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Table 3 EQ-5D-3L in the overall sample and by anxiety and depression sub-groups

From: The performance of the EQ-5D-3L in screening for anxiety and depressive symptoms in hospital and community settings

  Hospital setting Community setting
EQ-5D-3L Components
Mean ± SD or N (%)
N Anxiety/depression dimension Index Score VAS N Anxiety/depression dimension Index Score VAS
Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 1 Level 2 Level 3
Overall 492 284 (57.5) 180 (36.4) 29 (5.9) 0.69 ± 0.21 63.4 ± 18.9 400 294 (73.1) 92 (22.9) 16 (4.0) 0.77 ± 0.22 71.4 ± 19.4
Anxiety and Any Depression Sub-Groups             
 No anxiety nor any depressive symptomsa 292 221 (75.7) 66 (22.6) 5 (1.7) 0.75 ± 0.20 66.9 ± 17.1 310 264 (85.2) 44 (14.2) 2 (0.7) 0.79 ± 0.20 75.5 ± 16.9
 Anxiety present, no depressive symptomsb 64 28 (43.8) 34 (53.1) 2 (3.1) 0.63 ± 0.21 59.2 ± 18.5 23 11 (47.8) 8 (34.8) 4 (17.4) 0.62 ± 0.24 51.7 ± 23.7
 Any depressive symptoms, no anxietyc 52 16 (31.4) 28 (54.9) 7 (13.7) 0.64 ± 0.22 63.7 ± 21.3 41 15 (36.6) 22 (53.7) 4 (9.8) 0.63 ± 0.21 64.2 ± 17.6
 Anxiety and any depressive symptomsd 84 18 (21.7) 50 (60.2) 15(18.1) 0.59 ± 0.20 54.6 ± 20.5 26 2 (7.7) 18 (69.2) 6 (23.1) 0.44 ± 0.26 52.8 ± 21.9
 P value   < 0.001  0.137 < 0.001   < 0.001  <0.001  <0.001
Anxiety and Moderate-Severe Depression Sub-Groups             
 No anxiety or moderate-severe depressive symptomse 346 244 (70.5) 96 (27.8) 6 (1.7) 0.73 ± 0.20 65.6 ± 17.5 329 273 (83.0) 51 (15.5) 5 (1.5) 0.78 ± 0.21 74.2 ± 18.0
 Anxiety present, no moderate-severe depressive symptomsf 10 5 (50.0) 4 (40.0) 1 (10.0) 0.57 ± 0.23 63.2 ± 21.1 4 2 (50.0) 1 (25.0) 1 (25.0) 0.59 ± 0.34 44.3 ± 29.6
 Moderate-severe depressive symptoms, no anxietyg 83 24 (29.3) 45 (54.9) 13 (15.9) 0.64 ± 0.21 62.8 ± 21.0 57 17 (29.8) 34 (59.7) 6 (10.5) 0.59 ± 0.23 61.7 ± 17.5
 Anxiety and moderate-severe depressive symptomsh 53 10 (19.2) 33 (63.5) 9 (17.3) 0.57 ± 0.21 50.7 ± 19.6 10 0 (0.0) 6 (60.0) 4 (40.0) 0.35 ± 0.26 49.0 ± 29.6
 P value   < 0.001  0.003 < 0.001   < 0.001  <0.001  <0.001
  1. aGAD-2 < 3 and PHQ-9 < 10; bGAD-2 ≥ 3 and PHQ-9 < 10; cGAD-2 < 3 and PHQ-9 ≥ 10; dGAD-2 ≥ 3 and PHQ-9 ≥ 10
  2. eGAD-2 < 3 and PHQ-9 < 15; fGAD-2 < 3 and PHQ-9 ≥ 15; gGAD-2 ≥ 3 and PHQ-9 < 15; hGAD-2 ≥ 3 and PHQ-9 ≥ 15