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Table 1 PedsQL scores in CHD and control subjects: ceiling effect, effect size, internal consistency and reliability

From: Psychometric validation of the French self and proxy versions of the PedsQL™ 4.0 generic health-related quality of life questionnaire for 8–12 year-old children

  CHD patients Controls Mean difference (SD) Effect size [95% CI] Cronbach’s alpha Retest reliability ICC [95% CI]
N Mean SD Range of items SD % ceiling N Mean SD Range of items SD % ceiling
Self-reports               
Physical 117 80.9 16.2 [13.1; 32.39] 9.4 93 88.8 12.0 [6.6; 23.1] 20.4 7.88 (1.95) *** 0.55 [0.27; 0.82] 0.78 0.62 [0.53; 0.70]
Emotion 116 71.0 20.2 [23.7; 33.4] 6.0 93 76.7 18.0 [20.4; 32.4] 10.8 5.72 (2.65) * 0.30 [0.02; 0.57] 0.73 0.50 [0.39; 0.60]
Social 117 81.5 17.9 [22.1; 30.0] 21.4 93 89.1 16.6 [14.7; 24.4] 38.7 7.64 (2.39) *** 0.44 [0.16; 0.71] 0.79 0.57 [0.47; 0.66]
School 117 74.0 17.3 [21.0; 28.2] 5.1 93 83.0 15.7 [19.0; 26.2] 14.0 9.04 (2.28) *** 0.54 [0.27; 0.82] 0.72 0.61 [0.52; 0.69]
Psychosocial 117 75.4 15.3 NA 1.7 93 83.0 13.5 NA 6.5 7.56 (1.99) *** 0.52 [0.25; 0.80] NA 0.61 [0.51; 0.69]
Total 117 77.3 14.2 NA 0.9 93 85.0 12.3 NA 6.5 7.67 (1.84) *** 0.57 [0.30; 0.85] NA 0.66 [0.57; 0.73]
Proxy-reports               
Physical 123 79.3 20.0 [23.7; 32.1] 21.1 97 84.7 19.8 [22.5; 30.6] 22.7 5.38 (2.70) * 0.27 [0.01; 0.54] 0.86 0.49 [0.38; 0.59]
Emotion 123 63.8 21.3 [23.5; 32.3] 4.1 97 72.0 16.4 [22.0; 25.4] 3.1 8.2 (2.54) ** 0.42 [0.16; 0.69] 0.81 0.64 [0.55; 0.71]
Social 123 79.0 19.1 [21.4; 32.5] 25.2 97 83.2 17.5 [15.5; 36.5] 32.0 4.23 (2.47) 0.23 [− 0.04; 0.49] 0.74 0.49 [0.38; 0.59]
School 123 68.9 19.0 [23.0; 33.6] 4.1 97 76.3 17.8 [15.1; 36.1] 4.1 7.48 (2.49) ** 0.40 [0.13; 0.67] 0.69 0.60 [0.50; 0.68]
Psychosocial 123 70.6 16.0 NA 0.8 97 77.2 13.8 NA 0.0 6.62 (2.01) ** 0.44 [0.17; 0.71] NA 0.65 [0.56; 0.72]
Total 123 73.6 15.7 NA 0.8 97 79.8 14.3 NA 0.0 6.20 (2.02) ** 0.41 [0.14; 0.68] NA 0.63 [0.54; 0.71]
  1. CHD congenital heart disease, CI confidence interval, ICC intraclass correlation coefficient, NA non applicable (range of items was not indicated in summary scores), SD standard deviation
  2. % ceiling indicates the percentage of scores at the maximum value of the scaling range for each dimension
  3. Mean difference = mean controls − mean CHD patients. *P-value < 0.05; **P-value < 0.01; ***P-value < 0.001
  4. Effect size = mean difference ÷ pooled SD ([0.2; 0.5], small effect size; [0.51; 0.80], moderate effect size; > 0.80, large effect size)