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Table 2 Weighted mean differences in health utilities between self- and proxy-reports by health conditions

From: A comparison of self-reported and proxy-reported health utilities in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Health conditions* N groups (N participants) N groups (N proxies) WMD† (95% CI) P I2
General populations 9 (2746) 9 (2746) 0.034 (0.021, 0.047)  < 0.001 75.5%
Infectious and parasitic diseases
 Bacteremia 4 (36) 4 (28) 0.005 (− 0.044, 0.055) 0.829 38.4%
 Meningitis 4 (28) 4 (48) − 0.117 (− 0.167, − 0.067)  < 0.001 49.9%
Cancer
 Brain tumour 8 (194) 8 (232) 0.055 (− 0.010, 0.119) 0.099 62.0%
 Leukaemia/lymphoma 1 (33) 1 (79) − 0.040 (− 0.108, 0.028) 0.251
 Medulloblastoma 4 (152) 4 (152) − 0.013 (− 0.059, 0.034) 0.589 0.0%
 Mixed cancer diagnosis 6 (611) 6 (991) 0.053 (− 0.026, 0.132) 0.188 95.7%
Endocrine, nutritional and metabolic disorders
 Diabetes 9 (1382) 9 (1503) 0.004 (− 0.005, 0.014) 0.351 0.0%
 Overweight or obese 18 (1080) 18 (1080) 0.059 (0.045, 0.073)  < 0.001 94.9%
 Cystic fibrosis 1 (55) 1 (199) 0.030 (0.005, 0.055) 0.017 /
Mental and behavioral disorders‡
 Anxiety disorders 6 (339) 6 (310) 0.011 (− 0.001, 0.024) 0.077 0.0%
 CD 3 (86) 3 (46) 0.085 (− 0.113, 0.282) 0.400 94.2%
 CD + SA 3 (86) 3 (46) 0.085 (− 0.043, 0.213) 0.193 84.1%
 CD + ADHD 3 (86) 3 (46) 0.075 (− 0.096, 0.247) 0.390 91.8%
 DBD 3 (86) 3 (46) 0.072 (− 0.110, 0.254) 0.438 93.3%
 DBD + SA 3 (86) 3 (46) 0.055 (− 0.068, 0.177) 0.382 84.2%
 DBD + ADHD 3 (86) 3 (46) 0.052 (− 0.072, 0.176) 0.412 83.9%
 ODD 3 (86) 3 (46) 0.101 (− 0.045, 0.246) 0.174 90.5%
 ODD + SA 3 (86) 3 (46) 0.121 (− 0.050, 0.291) 0.167 89.0%
 ODD + ADHD 3 (86) 3 (46) 0.091 (− 0.127, 0.310) 0.414 95.0%
 Paediatric mobility impairment 12 (100) 12 (100) − 0.059 (− 0.091, − 0.027)  < 0.001 7.6%
 Prolonged acute convulsive seizures 2 (54) 2 (556) − 0.265 (− 0.344, − 0.186)  < 0.001 0.0%
Nervous system disorders
 Epilepsy 4 (64) 4 (16) − 0.009 (− 0.040, 0.022) 0.560 0.0%
Diseases of the ear
 Hearing loss 4 (60) 4 (28) 0.068 (− 0.005, 0.141) 0.067 90.0%
 Otitis media 4 (28) 4 (44) 0.063 (− 0.039, 0.165) 0.225 86.8%
Circulatory system disorders
 Stroke 2 (44) 2 (44) − 0.006 (− 0.088, 0.077) 0.893 0.0%
Respiratory system disorders
 Asthma 32 (2850) 32 (2850) − 0.034 (− 0.039, − 0.029)  < 0.001 34.6%
 Lung disease 8 (80) 8 (80) − 0.030 (− 0.057, − 0.003) 0.031 0.7%
Musculoskeletal disorders
 MSKD 16 (612) 16 (900) 0.019 (− 0.001, 0.039) 0.068 43.6%
Genitourinary system disorders
 Pelvic inflammatory disease 10 (1340) 10 (1210) 0.123 (0.101, 0.144)  < 0.001 25.5%
Conditions originating in the perinatal period
 ELBW/EP 4 (1056) 4 (1100) 0.065 (0.023, 0.106) 0.002 45.8%
 VLBW/VP 6 (1053) 6 (1053) 0.009 (− 0.016, 0.034) 0.481 98.9%
Congenital malformations
 Spina bifida 2 (125) 2 (132) − 0.044 (− 0.078, − 0.010) 0.012 93.2%
Injury, poisoning and other consequences of external causes
 Injury 2 (44) 2 (44) − 0.083 (− 0.155, − 0.012) 0.023 0.0%
Chronic illness
 Chronic illness 6 (164) 6 (164) − 0.047 (− 0.080, − 0.013) 0.007 45.8%
  1. ODD oppositional defiant disorder, CD conduct disorder, DBD disruptive behaviour disorder, ADHD attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, SA substance abuse, VLBW/VP very low birth weight/very preterm, ELBW/EP extremely low birth weight/extremely preterm
  2. *Health conditions were reported based on ICD-10 categories
  3. Proxy-reported health utilities minus self-reported health utilities
  4. Plus indicates patients have multiple diagnoses