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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: A comparison of self-reported and proxy-reported health utilities in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Author (year) Country Study design Health conditions Age (years) Gender (% of male) Sample size Valuation method Proxy type
Direct Indirect
Cardarelli (2006) Italy CS Brain tumour/mixed cancer diagnosis/leukaemia/lymphoma R: 12–28 NA 184   HUI2 Parents
Fu (2006) 4 countries CS Mixed cancer diagnosis R: 3.4–25.8; Median: 12.8 56.0% 680   HUI2; HUI3 Parents; clinicians
Glaser (1999) UK CS Brain tumour R: 10–16 NA 153   HUI2; HUI3 Parents; clinicians
Penn (2011) UK L Brain tumour/general Brain tumour: R: 3.6–16.4; Median: 11.1
General: R: 5.1–18.9; Median: 10.7
NA 43   HUI3 Parents
Verrips (2001) Netherlands C VLBW/VP M: 14.3 NA 406   HUI3 Parents
Wolke (2013) Germany C VLBW/VP/general M: 13 VLBW/VPT: 55.2%
General: 49.5%
542   HUI3 Parents
Saigal (1999) Canada C ELBW/EP M(SD): 14.2(1.6) NA 1,056 SG   Parents
Lee (2011) USA C Diabetes HUI3: R:8–18; M(SD): 13.7(3.1)
TTO: R: 15–18
NA 326 TTO HUI3 Parents
Belfort (2011) USA CS Overweight or obese/general Overweight or obese: R:8–17; 12–17
General: R:8–18; 8–18
NA 304   HUI3 Parents
Brunner (2003) Canada CS MSKD R: 8–18 NA 202 SG; VAS HUI3 Parents
Brunner (2004) USA L MSKD R: 3–18 NA 410 SG; VAS   Parents
Czyzewski (1994) USA CS Cystic fibrosis R: 0.2–17.9; M(SD): 8.74(4.86) NA 55   QWB Parents
Gerald (2012) USA CS Asthma R: 6–12 63.6% 2,806   PAHOM Parents
Kulpeng (2013) Thailand C Bacteremia/epilepsy/hearing loss/lung disease/meningitis/otitis media R: 5–14 NA 296 EQ-5D; VAS EQ-5D; HUI3; HUI2 Caregivers
Trent (2011) USA C Pelvic inflammatory disease R: 12–19 0% 1,340 TTO; VAS   Parents
Sung (2004) Canada CS Asthma/Chronic illness/Injury/Stroke R: 12–18; M(SD): 13.7(1.7) 55.0% 235 SG; TTO; VAS HUI2; HUI3 Parents
Jelsma-Ramma (2010) South Africa C Chronic illness/general R: 7–12 Chronic illness: 74.0%
General: 45.0%
628 EQ-5D-Y; VAS   Parents
Vermeulen (2017) Netherlands C ODD/CD/DBD/ODD + ADHD/CD + ADHD/DBD + ADHD/ODD + SA/CD + SA R: 4–12; M:9; R:12–18; M:15 NA 688 EQ-5D-3L; VAS   Parents
Baumann (2016) Germen L VLBW/VPT/General VLBW/VPT: M:13; 26
General: M:13; 26
VLBW/VPT: 45.3%
General: 53.7%
792   HUI3 Parents
Robertson (2016) England L Overweight or obese R: 6–11; M(SD): 9.43(1.61) 42.9% 626 VAS EQ-5D-Y Parents
Hanberger (2009) Sweden C Diabetes R: 2.6–19.6; M(SD): 13.2(3.9) 52.3% 148   EQ-5D Parents
Rhodes (2012) USA C Diabetes R: 12–18; M(SD): 15.5(2) 32.9% 107   HUI3 Parents
Sims-williams (2017) Uganda C Spina bifida R: 10–14 56.0% 125 VAS HUI3 Caregivers
Medeiros (2019) North America C Medulloblastoma R: 0.33–14.95; 1–17; M(SD): 6.82(3.41); 6.48(3.9) 68.0%; 76.0% 152   HUI2; HUI3 Parents
Kirkham (2019) 4 countries C Prolonged acute convulsive seizures R: 13–16; M(SD): 8.8(3.8) 54.9% 54   EQ-5D-3L Parents; clinicians
Lopez-Bastida (2019) Spain C Diabetes M(SD): 10.5(3.9); 11.7(3.9); 10.8(4); 11.9(3.4); 11(3.9) 52.8%; 53.7%; 56%; 43.1%; 53.2% 801 EQ-5D-Y VAS   Caregivers
Perez-Sousa (2018) Spain L Overweight or obese R: 6–14; 6–13; M(SD): 9.6(2.1); 8.7(1.6) 55.0%; 47.0% 302 EQ-5D-Y VAS   Parents
Bray (2017) UK C Paediatric mobility impairment R: 6–15; 16–18; 6–18 38.5% 100 EQ-5D VAS EQ-5D-Y; HUI2; HUI3 Parents
Creswell (2017) UK L Anxiety disorders M(SD): 9.28(1.83) 47.0% 339   CHU-9D Parents
Shi (2017) Japan L General M: 11.46 50.0% 1,308 EQ-5D VAS   Parents
  1. CS case series, L longitudinal, C cross-sectional, VLBW/VP very low birth weight/very preterm, ELBW/EP extremely low birth weight/extremely preterm, ODD oppositional defiant disorder, CD conduct disorder, DBD disruptive behaviour disorder, ADHD attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, SA substance abuse, R range, M mean, SD standard deviation, VAS visual analogue scale, SG standard gamble, TTO time trade-off, HUI health utility index, EQ-5D-Y EuroQol 5-dimension youth version, CHU9D child health utility 9-dimension, QWB quality of well-being scale, PAHOM pediatric asthma health outcome measure