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Table 1 Demographic characteristics of the patients analyzed

From: Effects of foot massage on relieving pain, anxiety and improving quality of life of patients undergone a cervical spine surgery

Variable Study group p
Intervention group
(n = 34)
Control group (n = 38)
Age (years) 54.2 ± 9.4 52.8 ± 12.4 0.246
Male gender, n (%) 15 (44.1%) 14 (36.8%) 0.632
BMI 28.9 ± 6.9 30.2 ± 7.5 0.195
Preoperative duration of pain, months 16.2 ± 14.3 13.8 ± 16.1 0.352
Smoker, n (%) 11 (32.4%) 16 (42.1%) 0.468
Hypertension, n (%) 13 (38.2%) 10 (26.3%) 0.319
Diabetes, n (%) 8 (23.5%) 13 (34.2%) 0.437
CAD, n (%) 5 (14.7%) 4 (10.5%) 0.726
HLD, n (%) 7 (20.6%) 10 (26.3%) 0.592
Education  
Junior high school and below 16 (47.1%) 14 (36.9%) 0.314
Senior high school or polytechnic school 12 (35.3%) 20 (52.6%)
College and above 6 (17.6%) 4 (10.5%)
  1. Values were expressed as n (percentage, %) or mean ± SD. p values for each group were derived from either unpaired t test or Mann–Whitney test as appropriate. Chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test was used for assessing distribution of observations or phenomena between different groups
  2. BMI: body mass index; CAD, coronary artery disease; HLD, hyperlipidemia