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Table 5 Reduction in HRQOL sub-scales explained by the direct (pain intensity) and indirect (self-efficacy) effects presented as percentage (%)

From: Health-related quality of life in adolescents with persistent pain and the mediating role of self-efficacy: a cross-sectional study

HRQOL sub-scales: Direct effect (%) Indirect
effect (%)
Physical well-being 32.8 67.2*
Psychological well-being 70.3 29.7*
Mood 60.5 39.5*
Self-perception 55.8 44.2*
Autonomy 56.5 43.5*
Relationship with parents 74.6 25.4
Financial relationship 86.2 13.8
Social support 85.7 14.3
School environment 70.4 29.6*
Bullying
  1. p < 0.05*