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Table 1 Characteristics of the participants: pain, self-efficacy and HRQOL sub-scale scores

From: Health-related quality of life in adolescents with persistent pain and the mediating role of self-efficacy: a cross-sectional study

Study variableAll (n = 78)
mean (SD)
Girls (n = 62)
mean (SD)
Boys (n = 16)
mean (SD)
Pain intensity5.42 (1.88)5.74 (1.75)4.19 (1.90)
Self-efficacy13.54 (3.30)13.21 (3.29)14.81 (3.17)
KIDSCREEN subscale
 Physical well-being45.19 (20.99)41.37 (18.56)60.00 (23.80)
 Psychological well-being56.09 (22.23)53.02 (21.93)67.97 (19.76)
 Mood58.74 (21.56)54.90 (21.29)73.66 (15.64)
 Self-perception45.71 (23.16)43.06 (22.96)55.94 (21.62)
 Autonomy59.23 (18.90)55.73 (18.64)72.81 (13.16)
 Relationship with parents65.01 (24.41)64.38 (24.80)67.45 (23.43)
 Financial resources70.61 (26.85)71.24 (27.23)68.23 (26.03)
 Social support60.52 (20.60)58.67 (20.83)67.71 (18.54)
 School environment54.75 (20.03)52.02 (18.32)65.36 (23.31)
 Bullying91.03 (13.34)90.99 (14.02)91.15 (10.74)