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Table 3 Adjusted linear associations between risk behavior factors and HRQoL utility scores in this study

From: Lifestyle-related behaviors and health-related quality of life among children and adolescents in China

Risk factors indexa Overall (N = 4388) Gender School type Residence
Estimate 95% CI P Boys (N = 2204) Girls (N = 2184) Primary (N = 1602) Junior high (N = 1455) Senior high (N = 1331) Rural (N = 2030) Sub-urban (N = 997) Urban (N = 1361)
     Estimate 95% CI P Estimate 95% CI P Estimate 95% CI P Estimate 95% CI P Estimate 95% CI P Estimate 95% CI P Estimate 95% CI P Estimate 95% CI P
Continuous variable − 0.03 − 0.03, − 0.02 0.000 − 0.02 − 0.03, − 0.02 < 0.001 − 0.03 − 0.04, − 0.03 < 0.001 − 0.02 − 0.03, − 0.02 < 0.001 − 0.03 − 0.04, − 0.02 < 0.001 − 0.02 − 0.03, − 0.01 < 0.001 − 0.03 − 0.03, − 0.02 < 0.001 − 0.03 − 0.04, − 0.02 < 0.001 − 0.03 − 0.04, − 0.01 0.002
 1 − 0.03 − 0.07, − 0.002 0.038 − 0.04 − 0.08, 0.01 0.098 − 0.04 − 0.08, 0.01 0.165 − 0.03 − 0.07, 0.02 0.216 − 0.05 − 0.11, 0.01 0.134 − 0.03 − 0.11, 0.05 0.414 − 0.03 − 0.07, 0.01 0.194 − 0.05 − 0.12, 0.02 0.167 − 0.04 − 0.11, 0.04 0.312
 2 − 0.07 − 0.10, − 0.04 0.000 − 0.07 − 0.11, − 0.03 0.001 − 0.08 − 0.12, − 0.03 0.002 − 0.05 − 0.09, − 0.01 0.014 − 0.09 − 0.15, − 0.03 0.004 − 0.08 − 0.16, − 0.01 0.036 − 0.06 − 0.10, − 0.02 0.003 − 0.09 − 0.16, − 0.03 0.008 − 0.08 − 0.15, − 0.01 0.025
 3 − 0.10 − 0.13, − 0.07 0.000 − 0.09 − 0.13, − 0.05 < 0.001 − 0.11 − 0.16, − 0.06 < 0.001 − 0.08 − 0.12, − 0.04 < 0.001 − 0.11 − 0.17, − 0.05 0.001 − 0.11 − 0.195, − 0.03 0.007 − 0.09 − 0.13, − 0.05 < 0.001 − 0.13 − 0.18, − 0.04 0.002 − 0.10 − 0.17, − 0.03 0.005
Categorical variable
 4 − 0.11 − 0.15, − 0.08 0.000 − 0.11 − 0.15, − 0.06 < 0.001 − 0.13 − 0.18, − 0.08 < 0.001 − 0.09 − 0.14, − 0.05 < 0.001 − 0.15 − 0.22, − 0.09 < 0.001 − 0.10 − 0.18, − 0.02 0.017 − 0.09 − 0.14, − 0.05 < 0.001 − 0.15 − 0.23, − 0.08 < 0.001 − 0.12 − 0.19, − 0.05 0.002
 5 − 0.14 − 0.20, − 0.08 0.000 − 0.13 − 0.20, − 0.05 0.002 − 0.17 − 0.26, − 0.07 < 0.001 − 0.14 − 0.24, − 0.05 0.003 − 0.18 − 0.28, − 0.09 < 0.001 − 0.08 − 0.22, 0.07 0.296 − 0.15 − 0.25, − 0.05 0.005 − 0.22 − 0.39, − 0.04 0.015 − 0.13 − 0.22, − 0.03 0.010
  1. p < 0.05 was set as statistical significance (two-sides)
  2. Mixed-effects linear regression analysis with adjustment for for age, gender, school type, residence, parental educational attainment, body weight status and class-level clustering effects
  3. Sufficient physical activity refers to at least 60 min/day moderate-vigorous intensity physical activity plus ≥ 3 days muscle/bone-strengthening; while insufficient physical activity means less than 60 min/day moderate-vigorous intensity physical activity or having no ≥ 3 days muscle/bone-strengthening
  4. Sleeping time: sufficient sleeping time was defined as 10 h/day for children aged 7–13, 9 h/day for children aged 13–16, and 8 h/day for those aged 16–19, based on guidelines for promotion of children and adolescents’ physical activity and fitness by The State Council of China
  5. Sugar-sweetened beverage and fast food consumption was separately categorized into: “no” or “yes” based on the weekly consumption frequency
  6. aRisk behavior factors constructing risk factor index refers to insufficient PA, prolonged ST, insufficient TSD, low intake of FF, and high intake of SSB. reference: no risk factor involved