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Table 2 Measurement invariance of the two-factor structure of the SF-12v2

From: The English and Chinese language versions of the Short Form 12-item Health Survey are equivalent

Model Level of measurement invariance Degrees of freedom χ2 statistic RMSEA CFI ΔRMSEA ΔCFI
M1: Same factor pattern   96 283.5 0.062 0.96
M2: Same factor loadings, versus M1 Metric invariance 106 327.5 0.065 0.95 0.003 0.01
M3: Same factor loadings, intercepts, versus M2 Scalar invariance 116 513.4 0.083 0.91 0.018 0.04
M4: Same factor loadings, intercepts (partial),a versus M2 Partial scalar invariance 112 366.8 0.067 0.94 0.002 0.01
M5: Same factor loadings, intercepts (partial),a residual variances, versus M4 Partial strict invariance 124 446.8 0.072 0.93 0.005 0.01
  1. RMSEA root mean square error of approximation, CFI comparative fit index
  2. aAfter freeing the intercepts for items Q2b, Q3b, Q4b and Q7