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Table 3 Summary of EQ-5D-3L mean utility values (unadjusted) and EQ VAS

From: EQ-5D-3L health state utility values in transfusion-dependent thalassemia patients in Malaysia: a cross-sectional assessment

Factors EQ-5D-3L utility values EQ VAS
Mean (SD) Median (IQR) p value Effect size Mean (SD) Median (IQR) p value Effect size
Total sample 0.893 (0.167) 1.000 (0.269) 81.22 (16.92) 85.00 (25.00)
Source of survey         
 Self-reported 0.887 (0.165) 1.000 (0.269) 0.219 0.080 78.08 (18.19) 80.00 (20.00) < 0.001* 0.439
 Proxy-reported 0.900 (0.169) 1.000 (0.255) 85.36 (14.10) 90.00 (15.00)
Gender         
 Male 0.911 (0.157) 1.000 (0.244) 0.011* 0.202 82.29 (15.53) 85.00 (20.00) 0.450 0.114
 Female 0.878 (0.173) 1.000 (0.269) 80.37 (17.93) 85.00 (25.00)
Category         
 Child (≤ 18 years old) 0.898 (0.163) 1.000 (0.255) 0.079 0.371 84.97 (15.16) 90.00 (15.00) < 0.001* 0.611
 Adult 0.884 (0.172) 1.000 (0.269) 75.04 (17.86) 80.00 (25.00)
Presence of iron overload complication         
 Absent 0.911 (0.153) 1.000 (0.244) 0.002* 0.257 83.31 (16.61) 85.00 (15.00) < 0.001* 0.288
 Present 0.869 (0.180) 1.000 (0.269) 78.49 (16.70) 80.00 (20.00)
Route of iron chelating therapy         
 Subcutaneous (SC) only 0.877 (0.187) 1.000 (0.269) 0.016¥,* Reference Group 78.45 (15.68) 80.00 (20.00) < 0.001¥,* Reference Group
 Oral (PO) only 0.911 (0.151) 1.000 (0.244) 0.215 83.82 (15.41) 90.00 (15.00) 0.347
 SC + PO 0.866 (0.181) 1.000 (0.269) 0.060 77.60 (19.06) 80.00 (20.00) 0.047
Number of iron chelating agents         
 Monotherapy 0.908 (0.153) 1.000 (0.255) 0.005* 0.274 82.95 (15.52) 87.50 (20.00) < 0.001* 0.299
 Dual therapy 0.863 (0.186) 1.000 (0.269) 77.90 (18.95) 80.00 (20.00)
History of serious adverse event with iron chelating therapy         
 Yes 0.881 (0.181) 1.000 (0.269) 0.585 0.078 78.16 (17.52) 85.00 (20.00) 0.068 0.208
 No 0.894 (0.164) 1.000 (0.269) 81.67 (16.80) 80.00 (20.00)
  1. Values of scores are presented as Mean (SD; standard deviation); Median (IQR; interquartile range) N, number; SC, subcutaneous; PO, oral; VAS, Visual Analogue Scale
  2. p value using Mann Whitney U Test
  3. ¥p value using Kruskal Wallis Test
  4. *indicates significance at p value < 0.05, Effect Size (Cohen’s d Interpreted as d = 0.2–0.5 (Small), d = 0.5–0.8 (Moderate) and d > 0.8 (Large)