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Table 6 Known-groups comparison of the Hausa Pain Catastrophizing Scale

From: Development of the Hausa version of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale: translation, cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric evaluation in mixed urban and rural patients with chronic low back pain

  Gender Habitation
Male Female t-cal p-value Urban Rural t-cal p-value
Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD)
Total score 30.2 (8.29) 29.8 (8.14) 2.559 0.056 30.2 (7.96) 29.9 (8.41) 0.106 0.745
Rumination 10.5 (3.26) 9.34 (3.53) 2.453 0.068 9.93 (3.57) 10.1 (3.29) 0.126 0.723
Magnification 7.30 (2.56) 6.15 (2.42) 2.593 0.057 6.62 (2.24) 7.05 (2.78) 0.672 0.414
Helplessness 13.1 (4.51) 12.4 (4.47) 1.550 0.207 12.7 (4.04) 13.0 (4.82) 0.065 0.799
  1. SD standard deviation