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Table 3 General characteristics of the Hausa Pain Catastrophizing Scale (n = 200)

From: Development of the Hausa version of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale: translation, cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric evaluation in mixed urban and rural patients with chronic low back pain

  Range Mean (SD) Highest score Lowest score Ceiling effects n (%) Floor effects n (%) Skewness
Total score 0–52 30.0 (8.21) 52 1 1 (0.5) 3 (1.5)  
Rumination subscale 0–16 10.3 (3.20) 16 4 7 (3.5) 11 (5.5)  
 Item 8 I anxiously want the pain to go away 0–4 2.86 (1.10) 4 0 72 (36.0) 0 (0.5) − 0.596
 Item 9 I can’t seem to keep it out of mind 0–4 2.33 (1.09) 4 0 31 (15.0) 2 (1.0) 0.189
 Item 10 I keep thinking about how much it hurts 0–4 2.41 (1.07) 4 0 38 (19.0) 1 (0.5) 0.028
 Item 11 I keep thinking about how badly I want the pain to stop 0–4 2.81 (1.13) 4 1 76 (38.0) 36 (18.0) − 0.389
Magnification subscale 0–12 6.99 (2.55) 12 2 6 (3.0) 1 (0.5)  
 Item 6 I become afraid that the pain may get worse 0–4 2.26 (1.10) 4 0 31 (15.5) 1 (1.0) 0.106
 Item 7 I think of other painful experiences 0–4 2.21 (1.12) 4 0 33 (16.5) 3 (1.5) 0.209
 Item 13 I wonder whether something serious may happen 0–4 2.51 (1.17) 4 1 54 (27.0) 59 (29.5) − 0.071
Helplessness subscale 0–24 12.7 (4.20) 24 2 1 (0.5) 1 (0.5)  
 Item 1 I worry all the time whether the pain will end 0–4 2.40 (1.04) 4 1 37 (18.5) 47 (23.5) 0.121
 Item 2 I feel I can’t go on 0–4 1.96 (0.96) 4 0 14 (7.0) 3 (1.5) 0.458
 Item 3 It’s terrible and I think it’s never going to get any better 0–4 2.21 (1.08) 4 1 31 (15.5) 1 (0.5) 0.271
 Item 4 It’s awful and I feel that it overwhelms me 0–4 1.92 (1.07) 4 0 22 (11.0) 5 (2.5) 0.573
 Item 5 I feel I can’t stand it any more 0–4 2.15 (1.07) 4 0 29 (14.5) 1 (0.5) 0.372
 Item 12 There is nothing I can do to reduce the intensity of the pain 0–4 2.08 (1.06) 4 0 24 (12.0) 1 (0.5) 0.415
  1. SD standard deviation