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Table 2 Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of the participants

From: Development of the Hausa version of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale: translation, cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric evaluation in mixed urban and rural patients with chronic low back pain

Characteristics N = 200
Age, years, mean ± SD 45.5 ± 14.5
Gender, n (%), male: female 123 (61.5), 77 (38.5)
Habitation, n (%), urban: rural 80 (40.0), 120 (60.0)
Marital status, n (%), married: unmarried 157 (78.5), 43 (21.5)
Educational status, n (%)
 Non-formal education 66 (33.0)
 Completed primary education 30 (15.0)
 Completed secondary education 41 (20.0)
 Completed tertiary education 63 (31.5)
Literacy (ability to read and write in Hausa), n (%)
 Non-literate 111 (55.5)
 Literate 89 (44.5)
Occupational status, n (%)
 Paid work (government or private) 49 (24.5)
 Self-employed (farming and trading) 112 (56.0)
 Student 17 (8.5)
 Unemployed 16 (8.0)
 Retiree 6 (3.0)
 PCS (score range 0–52) 30.0 ± 8.21
 FABQ-total (score range 0–66) 36.4 ± 11.4
 FABQ-physical activity (score range 0–42) 13.1 ± 5.81
 FABQ-work (score range 0–24) 23.3 ± 7.74
 VAS-pain (score range 0–100 mm) 36.1 ± 12.6
 ODI (score range 0–100) 36.0 ± 10.8
  1. SD standard deviation, PCS Pain Catastrophizing Scale, FABQ Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire; VAS-pain Visual Analogue Scale for pain, ODI Oswestry Disability Index