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Table 1 Patient characteristics at pre-pandemic visit

From: Impact of COVID-19 on health-related quality of life in patients with cardiovascular disease: a multi-ethnic Asian study

Characteristics N = 81
Age (years), mean (SD) 59.8 (10.5)
Male, n (%) 75 (92.6)
Ethnicity, n (%)  
 Chinese 62 (76.5)
 Malay 12 (14.8)
 Indian 6 (7.4)
 Others 1 (1.2)
Education, n (%)  
 Primary (6 years) or less 13 (16.1)
 Secondary (up to 11 years) 35 (43.2)
 Diploma, university or higher 33 (40.7)
Household earning < S$4000, n (%) 42 (51.9)
Heart problems, n (%)  
 Coronary artery disease 56 (69.1)
 Heart failure 23 (28.4)
 Arrhythmia 12 (14.8)
 Other heart problems 6 (7.4)
Comorbidities, n (%)  
 Hypertension 50 (61.7)
 Hyperlipidaemia 49 (60.5)
 Diabetes 40 (49.4)
 Stroke 9 (11.1)
 Other* 40 (49.4)
NYHA functional classification, n (%)  
 I 45 (55.6)
 II 31 (38.3)
 III 5 (6.2)
Health status using EQ-VAS, mean (SD) 78.6 (12.6)
EQ-5D-3L utility score, mean (SD) 0.898 (0.20)
  1. *Includes one or more of the following: chronic lung disease, chronic kidney disease, peripheral vascular disease, cancer, depression/anxiety, chronic liver disease, orthopaedic disorders
  2. SD standard deviation, NYHA New York Heart Association, EQ-VAS EQ-Visual Analogue Scale, EQ-5D-3L 3-level EQ-5D