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Table 5 Adjusted odds ratios (and 95% confidence intervals) from multivariable logistic regression for activity limitation by race/ethnicity

From: Racial/ethnic differences in health-related quality of life among Hawaii adult population

Variable White Chinese Filipino Japanese NHPI Hispanic
Predisposing variable       
Sex, male 1.09 (0.81–1.45) 0.79 (0.32–1.93) 1.95 (1.09–3.48)+ 1.17 (0.71–1.92) 1.89 (1.14–3.14)+ 1.71 (0.86–3.40)
Age (Ref: 18–44 years)       
 45–64 years 1.22 (0.84–1.78) 1.36 (0.45–4.15) 0.56 (0.29–1.09) 1.37 (0.64–2.92) 0.82 (0.48–1.42) 0.58 (0.23–1.47)
 ≥ 65 years 0.44 (0.27–0.72)* 0.35 (0.07–1.62) 0.34 (0.15–0.80)+ 0.61 (0.25–1.49) 0.20 (0.08–0.50)* 0.24 (0.07–0.87)+
Marital status (Ref: married)       
 Single 1.18 (0.77–1.80) 0.68 (0.21–2.21) 0.62 (0.29–1.34) 0.99 (0.55–1.78) 0.60 (0.36–1.02) 1.53 (0.51–4.62)
 Separated/divorced/widowed 0.84 (0.62–1.15) 1.25 (0.41–3.79) 0.77 (0.36–1.63) 1.20 (0.67–2.14) 0.78 (0.48–1.27) 1.04 (0.35–3.06)
Education (Ref: ≤ high school)       
 Some college 1.05 (0.76–1.45) 0.25 (0.07–0.87)+ 0.49 (0.26–0.92)+ 0.75 (0.40–1.38) 0.80 (0.53–1.22) 0.66 (0.23–1.87)
 College graduate 0.85 (0.61–1.19) 0.48 (0.17–1.40) 1.00 (0.50–2.00) 1.33 (0.74–2.39) 0.47 (0.23–0.93)+ 0.54 (0.17–1.72)
Enabling variable       
Employment (Ref: unemployed)       
 Employed 0.30 (0.21–0.41)* 0.32 (0.12–0.81)+ 0.45 (0.24–0.81)* 0.21 (0.12–0.38)* 0.27 (0.16–0.44)* 0.53 (0.20–1.41)
Income (Ref: < $50,000)       
 ≥ $50,000 0.61 (0.43–0.86)* 1.65 (0.62–4.37) 0.75 (0.41–1.37) 0.79 (0.45–1.41) 0.60 (0.33–1.09) 0.79 (0.20–3.06)
 Missing 1.26 (0.66–2.42) 0.56 (0.13–2.42) 0.45 (0.19–1.09) 0.91 (0.36–2.33) 0.64 (0.33–1.27) 0.15 (0.03–0.83)+
Housing status (Ref: own)       
 Other 0.61 (0.43–0.86) 1.89 (0.76–4.71) 1.29 (0.65–2.57) 2.37 (1.46–3.82)* 0.76 (0.46–1.27) 0.80 (0.27–2.44)
Residential area, Oahu 1.26 (0.66–2.42) 0.77 (0.31–1.95) 0.80 (0.46–1.40) 1.30 (0.84–2.02) 1.16 (0.76–1.76) 0.93 (0.45–1.92)
Have healthcare coverage 0.61 (0.43–0.86)+ 2.72 (0.60–12.31) 2.19 (0.80–5.99) 1.51 (0.62–3.68) 1.35 (0.70–2.59) 3.13 (0.72–13.54)
Couldn’t see doctor because of medical cost 1.26 (0.66–2.42)* 1.42 (0.19–10.79) 1.56 (0.83–2.93) 1.20 (0.58–2.50) 2.15 (1.32–3.53)* 1.77 (0.70–4.50)
Need variable       
Exercise 0.39 (0.28–0.53)* 0.60 (0.25–1.47) 0.61 (0.35–1.07) 0.28 (0.17–0.46)* 0.38 (0.25–0.58)* 0.38 (0.17–0.82)+
Heavy drinking 0.64 (0.42–0.97)+ 0.86 (0.11–6.97) 0.19 (0.03–1.02) 1.23 (0.50–3.04) 1.69 (0.88–3.24) 1.64 (0.53–5.08)
Smoking (Ref: current)       
 Former/never 0.91 (0.64–1.29) 0.58 (0.22–1.55) 1.06 (0.47–2.42) 1.05 (0.48–2.30) 0.67 (0.44–1.02) 1.66 (0.75–3.65)
H/O heart attack 1.74 (1.17–2.60)* 0.34 (0.03–4.34) 1.65 (0.38–7.08) 0.42 (0.14–1.22) 1.73 (0.93–3.21) 7.57 (1.8–31.88)*
H/O CHD 1.26 (0.78–2.05) 6.02 (0.90–40.3) 0.96 (0.28–3.32) 4.71 (2.19–10.14)* 0.87 (0.43–1.77) 1.40 (0.28–7.01)
H/O stroke 2.07 (1.33–3.24)* 1.11 (0.17–7.12) 3.21 (1.16–8.84)+ 0.80 (0.37–1.74) 1.71 (0.83–3.52) 2.35 (0.46–11.9)
H/O asthma 1.46 (1.06–2.02)+ 1.78 (0.67–4.70) 1.29 (0.63–2.62) 0.65 (0.35–1.21) 1.44 (0.91–2.28) 1.94 (0.84–4.50)
H/O cancer 1.12 (0.84–1.48) 1.07 (0.35–3.28) 1.90 (0.64–5.59) 1.44 (0.80–2.59) 1.28 (0.64–2.57) 1.89 (0.76–4.73)
H/O COPD 1.65 (1.10–2.47)+ 1.47 (0.30–7.16) 1.46 (0.50–4.22) 1.35 (0.53–3.45) 2.63 (1.23–5.65)+ 1.17 (0.43–3.18)
H/O arthritis 2.06 (1.54–2.74)* 2.09 (0.84–5.20) 3.36 (1.74–6.50)* 2.83 (1.70–4.72)* 1.21 (0.74–1.97) 1.98 (0.82–4.78)
H/O depression 6.12 (4.60–8.16)* 5.82 (1.90–17.87)* 18.04 (9.30–35.01)* 7.00 (4.47–10.97)* 5.23 (3.47–7.88)* 15.67 (6.95–35.37)*
H/O kidney disease 1.22 (0.70–2.12) 1.29 (0.35–4.75) 1.66 (0.70–3.92) 1.60 (0.73–3.48) 1.77 (0.94–3.34) 0.92 (0.34–2.50)
H/O diabetes 0.84 (0.58–1.21) 2.06 (0.86–4.93) 1.40 (0.75–2.60) 0.89 (0.45–1.76) 1.42 (0.85–2.36) 1.42 (0.49–4.07)
Obese/overweight 0.91 (0.64–1.29) 0.43 (0.16–1.14) 0.60 (0.34–1.06) 1.00 (0.62–1.61) 0.94 (0.57–1.54) 1.34 (0.59–3.02)
  1. Activity limitation was dichotomized as ≥ 14 unhealthy days (1) vs. < 14 unhealthy days (0). A multivariable logistic regression with quasi-binomial distribution was conducted, accounting for the complex sampling design
  2. NHPI, Native Hawaiian/other Pacific Islander; H/O, history of; CHD, coronary heart disease; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; Ref, reference
  3. +P value < 0.05; *P value < 0.01