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Table 3 Adjusted odds ratios (and 95% confidence intervals) from multivariable logistic regression for physical health by race/ethnicity

From: Racial/ethnic differences in health-related quality of life among Hawaii adult population

Variable White Chinese Filipino Japanese NHPI Hispanic
Predisposing variable       
Sex, Male 1.13 (0.94–1.35) 0.82 (0.48–1.39) 0.83 (0.59–1.16) 0.85 (0.68–1.07) 1.67 (1.27–2.19)* 1.50 (0.95–2.38)
Age (Ref: 18–44 years)       
 45–64 years 1.27 (0.98–1.63) 1.13 (0.47–2.69) 1.96 (1.27–3.02)* 2.01 (1.32–3.06)* 1.13 (0.78–1.62) 1.49 (0.85–2.59)
 ≥ 65 years 0.99 (0.73–1.35) 0.68 (0.24–1.92) 1.92 (1.08–3.44)+ 1.25 (0.78–2.02) 0.72 (0.42–1.24) 2.06 (0.97–4.40)
Marital status (Ref: married)       
 Single 1.35 (1.03–1.79)+ 0.77 (0.34–1.75) 1.26 (0.77–2.08) 0.84 (0.59–1.19) 0.57 (0.40–0.81)* 1.57 (0.79–3.15)
 Separated/divorced/widowed 1.07 (0.87–1.31) 1.34 (0.74–2.43) 1.01 (0.67–1.52) 1.02 (0.77–1.34) 0.89 (0.64–1.24) 1.29 (0.70–2.37)
Education (Ref: ≤ high school)       
 Some college 1.04 (0.83–1.31) 0.61 (0.32–1.17) 1.05 (0.74–1.49) 0.96 (0.73–1.27) 0.86 (0.64–1.15) 0.86 (0.51–1.46)
 College graduate 0.84 (0.67–1.06) 0.55 (0.31–0.98)+ 0.76 (0.52–1.11) 0.92 (0.69–1.23) 0.68 (0.46–1.00) 0.51 (0.26–1.01)
Enabling variable       
Employment (Ref: unemployed)       
 Employed 0.57 (0.47–0.69)* 0.44 (0.24–0.82)* 0.75 (0.50–1.11) 0.54 (0.40–0.72)* 0.64 (0.48–0.86)* 0.60 (0.35–1.03)
Income (Ref: < $50,000)       
 ≥ $50,000 0.78 (0.63–0.97)+ 1.23 (0.72–2.12) 0.65 (0.44–0.94)+ 0.71 (0.54–0.94)+ 0.81 (0.57–1.15) 1.09 (0.58–2.07)
 Missing 0.87 (0.61–1.24) 0.78 (0.28–2.15) 1.15 (0.63–2.08) 0.86 (0.57–1.29) 0.88 (0.52–1.47) 0.94 (0.36–2.42)
Housing status (Ref: own)       
Other 1.05 (0.83–1.33) 0.75 (0.38–1.46) 1.11 (0.77–1.60) 1.51 (1.15–1.99)* 1.09 (0.80–1.49) 0.69 (0.39–1.24)
Residential area, Oahu 0.90 (0.76–1.07) 1.67 (0.88–3.13) 0.96 (0.70–1.31) 0.93 (0.74–1.17) 0.91 (0.70–1.18) 0.78 (0.47–1.28)
Have healthcare coverage 1.53 (1.06–2.20)+ 0.81 (0.16–4.03) 1.43 (0.69–2.93) 1.69 (0.88–3.21) 1.48 (0.87–2.53) 1.29 (0.61–2.74)
Couldn’t see doctor because of medical cost 1.75 (1.32–2.32)* 1.34 (0.47–3.78) 1.50 (0.93–2.44) 1.42 (0.86–2.34) 1.21 (0.85–1.73) 1.76 (0.97–3.19)
Need variable       
Exercise 0.34 (0.28–0.41)* 0.39 (0.23–0.66)* 0.93 (0.68–1.29) 0.55 (0.43–0.70)* 0.43 (0.33–0.57)* 0.79 (0.46–1.36)
Heavy drinking 0.75 (0.56–1.00) 0.32 (0.05–1.89) 0.82 (0.44–1.54) 1.17 (0.64–2.14) 0.90 (0.57–1.43) 1.46 (0.71–3.00)
Smoking (Ref: current)       
 Former/never 0.86 (0.67–1.10) 1.26 (0.56–2.87) 1.03 (0.60–1.75) 1.19 (0.83–1.71) 0.92 (0.68–1.26) 0.90 (0.51–1.61)
H/O heart attack 1.29 (0.96–1.72) 0.31 (0.06–1.63) 1.15 (0.57–2.32) 0.79 (0.46–1.36) 1.30 (0.79–2.14) 1.01 (0.37–2.74)
H/O CHD 1.31 (0.96–1.80) 0.97 (0.21–4.36) 1.29 (0.67–2.48) 1.83 (1.12–3.00)+ 1.05 (0.59–1.89) 0.97 (0.34–2.79)
H/O stroke 1.97 (1.39–2.78)* 4.37 (1.12–17.08)+ 2.52 (1.36–4.69)* 1.06 (0.66–1.69) 1.71 (1.01–2.89)+ 2.22 (0.79–6.28)
H/O asthma 1.08 (0.87–1.34) 2.77 (1.59–4.85)* 0.82 (0.54–1.27) 1.27 (0.91–1.76) 1.44 (1.08–1.91)+ 1.50 (0.86–2.61)
H/O cancer 1.37 (1.12–1.66)* 1.62 (0.83–3.16) 1.85 (1.02–3.38)+ 1.74 (1.29–2.34)* 1.71 (1.13–2.58)+ 0.81 (0.36–1.83)
H/O COPD 2.27 (1.66–3.11)* 3.72 (1.64–8.44)* 1.54 (0.80–2.96) 1.97 (1.32–2.94)* 3.09 (1.93–4.97)* 2.83 (1.27–6.29)+
H/O arthritis 2.25 (1.88–2.68)* 2.03 (1.22–3.38)* 2.69 (1.91–3.79)* 2.53 (2.03–3.16)* 1.89 (1.40–2.55)* 1.45 (0.83–2.53)
H/O depression 2.23 (1.84–2.70)* 1.45 (0.69–3.08) 3.49 (2.24–5.45)* 2.33 (1.68–3.23)* 2.05 (1.48–2.83)* 2.68 (1.51–4.73)*
H/O kidney disease 1.24 (0.90–1.71) 3.98 (1.87–8.46)* 3.14 (1.80–5.46)* 1.54 (0.97–2.47) 1.71 (1.02–2.88)+ 2.56 (0.94–6.93)
H/O diabetes 1.28 (0.99–1.66) 1.34 (0.73–2.47) 1.60 (1.09–2.34)+ 1.44 (1.09–1.89)* 1.45 (1.07–1.97)+ 2.13 (1.09–4.18)+
Obese/overweight 1.14 (0.95–1.36) 1.07 (0.62–1.82) 1.20 (0.86–1.67) 1.09 (0.86–1.37) 1.31 (0.96–1.80) 0.96 (0.60–1.54)
  1. Physical health was dichotomized as ≥ 14 unhealthy days (1) vs. < 14 unhealthy days (0). A multivariable logistic regression with quasi-binomial distribution was conducted, accounting for the complex sampling design
  2. NHPI, Native Hawaiian/other Pacific Islander; H/O, history of; CHD, coronary heart disease; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; Ref, reference
  3. +P value < 0.05; *P value < 0.01