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Table 1 Subject characteristics stratified by race/ethnicity

From: Racial/ethnic differences in health-related quality of life among Hawaii adult population

Variable All
n (weighted %)
Race/ethnicity, weighted column %
White
n = 17,100 (30.4%)
Chinese
n = 2222 (5.9%)
Filipino
n = 5590 (16.8%)
Japanese
n = 8800 (20.9%)
NHPI
n = 6998 (14.6%)
Hispanic
n = 2036 (5.2%)
Other
n = 2484 (6.2%)
Predisposing variable         
Sex, male 21,848 (50.0) 54.0 49.8 46.7 46.1 47.7 54.6 54.1
Age         
 18–44 years 13,975 (46.3) 43.6 40.1 52.1 27.9 63.4 63.9 57.8
 45–64 years 17,334 (33.2) 35.2 34.7 32.7 37.9 25.9 26.7 29.7
 ≥ 65 years 13,921 (20.5) 21.2 25.2 15.2 34.2 10.7 9.4 12.5
Marital status         
 Married 23,754 (54.5) 58.2 54.9 57.7 55.0 45.1 49.9 52.1
 Single 9931 (27.6) 22.2 29.2 28.2 24.9 38.6 32.4 30.3
 Separated/divorced/widowed 11,366 (17.8) 19.5 15.9 14.0 20.1 16.3 17.7 17.6
Education         
 ≤ High school graduate 14,245 (39.3) 31.9 27.5 47.9 30.3 59.4 49.9 37.0
 Some college 12,574 (33.5) 34.2 31.4 34.6 34.7 28.3 34.0 36.7
 College graduate 18,308 (27.3) 33.9 41.1 17.5 35.0 12.3 16.1 26.2
Enabling variable         
Employment, employed 25,208 (61.3) 62.8 57.2 68.1 54.4 61.5 62.7 62.0
Income         
 < $50,000 21,107 (44.1) 38.5 35.5 55.0 34.2 57.9 2.4 44.1
 ≥ $50,000 19,723 (45.0) 52.5 51.2 32.2 53.5 32.3 38.4 43.6
 Missing 4400 (10.9) 9.0 13.3 12.8 12.3 9.8 9.3 12.3
Housing status, own 26,350 (62.0) 62.3 79.0 57.0 78.8 46.8 44.5 50.9
Residential area, Oahu 22,726 (69.8) 59.3 92.0 71.3 78.9 65.8 62.2 80.3
Having insurance 41,826 (91.6) 92.3 93.4 90.8 95.5 87.1 88.1 89.3
Couldn’t see doctor because of medical cost 3874 (8.6) 8.2 4.9 11.2 2.9 13.5 13.5 10.3
Need variable         
Exercise 35,087 (79.2) 84.8 78.1 72.1 77.8 76.2 82.9 80.7
Heavy drinking 3378 (7.6) 10.1 3.5 4.8 5.1 10.6 10.3 6.6
Smoking, current 5760 (14.3) 14.1 6.3 12.4 10.4 22.9 18.5 18.0
H/O heart attack 1888 (3.2) 3.6 3.6 2.1 3.3 3.9 2.1 2.9
H/O CHD 1721 (3.0) 3.1 2.6 2.4 3.6 3.4 1.7 3.1
H/O stroke 1548 (2.8) 2.7 3.0 2.1 3.5 3.2 2.2 2.6
H/O asthma 7062 (16.2) 13.7 14.8 14.2 14.6 24.7 22.1 16.6
H/O cancer 6026 (9.1) 16.4 5.3 3.7 8.6 6.0 5.0 4.4
H/O COPD 2281 (4.1) 5.0 2.9 3.0 4.1 4.8 4.2 3.2
H/O arthritis 11,441 (20.1) 22.4 18.3 17.3 22.6 18.1 16.5 17.0
H/O depression 5795 (11.3) 16.1 7.0 6.8 7.0 12.3 17.7 11.3
H/O kidney disease 1832 (3.5) 3.5 2.9 2.9 3.8 4.3 3.5 3.1
H/O diabetes 4973 (9.8) 5.7 9.2 12.2 13.0 12.2 9.3 8.3
Obese/overweight 24,340 (56.6) 54.4 40.7 55.7 51.0 75.3 63.2 54.9
HRQOL measure         
General health: fair/poor 7103 (14.4) 11.2 12.8 13.9 14.9 21.0 16.9 13.1
Physical healtha 4847 (9.4) 10.0 8.0 7.9 8.3 11.4 11.1 9.0
Mental healtha 3889 (8.6) 9.1 8.0 5.9 5.9 12.0 14.0 10.7
Activity limitationa 1708 (3.3) 4.0 2.3 2.2 1.7 4.9 4.8 4.1
  1. Race/ethnicity was significantly associated with all variables except kidney disease by Rao-Scott’s chi-square test at the significance level of 0.01
  2. NHPI, Native Hawaiian/other Pacific Islander; H/O, history of; CHD, coronary heart disease; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; HRQOL, health-related quality of life
  3. a≥ 14 unhealthy days or more