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Table 2 Self-report QoL explanatory variables in the CHD group

From: Health-related quality of life in children with congenital heart disease aged 5 to 7 years: a multicentre controlled cross-sectional study

Variables   Physical functioning Psychosocial functioning Total scale score
Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
Estimation (SE) p-value p-value$ Estimation (SE) p-value p-value$ Estimation (SE) p-value p-value$
Age   0.3 (1.8) 0.89 * 0.72  − 1.6 (1.6) 0.31 * 0.46  − 1.0 (1.4) 0.50 * 0.93
Gender Female versus male  − 4.3 (3.1) 0.16 * 0.07  − 0.4 (2.7) 0.88 * 0.34  − 1.8 (2.4) 0.46 * 0.17
Bethesda severity classification Low versus severe 3.9 (4.7) 0.54 9.2 (4.0) 0.05 * 7.4 (3.6) 0.08 *
  moderate versus severe 0.7 (4.8)    4.4 (4.1)    3.1 (3.7)   
Ross classification Class I versus Class II 9.2 (5.3) 0.08 * 0.05 11.2 (4.6) 0.02 * 0.04 10.5 (4.1) 0.01 * 0.03
Age at CHD diagnosis Postnatal versus prenatal 3.9 (3.5) 0.26 4.6 (3.1) 0.13 * 4.4 (2.7) 0.11 *
Cardiac surgery No versus yes 5.9 (3.0) 0.05 9.9 (2.5)  < 0.001 8.5 (2.3)  < 0.001
Number of cardiac surgical procedures 0 versus ≥ 3 6.9 (12.0) 0.10 * 16.9 (9.9)  < 0.001 *  < 0.01 13.4 (9.0)  < 0.001 *  < 0.01
  1 versus ≥ 3 2.7 (12.1)    9.2 (10.0)    6.9 (9.0)   
  2 versus ≥ 3  − 7.3 (13.1)     − 3.0 (10.8)     − 4.5 (9.8)   
Cardiac catheter No versus yes  − 0.4 (3.6) 0.92 5.0 (3.1) 0.11 * 3.2 (2.8) 0.27
Number of cardiac catheter procedures 0 versus 2  − 6.9 (8.7) 0.71 1.8 (7.6) 0.25  − 1.2 (6.8) 0.42
  1 versus 2  − 7.5 (9.2)     − 3.8 (8.0)     − 5.1 (7.2)   
Cardiac medication No versus yes 6.8 (4.5) 0.14 * 7.5 (3.9) 0.06 * 7.2 (3.5) 0.04 *
PAH No versus yes  − 3.8 (8.6) 0.66 4.6 (7.6) 0.54 1.7 (6.8) 0.80
Normal left ventricle ejection fraction No versus yes  − 2.1 (6.9) 0.76  − 0.1 (5.8) 0.98  − 0.8 (5.3) 0.88
  1. Values are linear regression coefficients β (Standard Error) and p-values. Significant p-values are marked in italic
  2. CHD congenital heart disease, PAH pulmonary arterial hypertension, SD standard error
  3. *Candidate variables for multivariate analysis
  4. $ “–” Not maintained in the model (P > 0.10)