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Table 1 Characteristics of the study sample (N = 221)

From: The validity of the diabetes self-management questionnaire (DSMQ) in Hungarian patients with type 2 diabetes

Parameter Patients (N = 221) Inpatients (N = 66) Outpatients (N = 155)
n (%) or mean ± SD
Gender
 Male 129 (59) 42 (64) 87 (56)
 Female 92 (41) 24 (36) 68 (44)
Age (years) 63 ± 11.89 65.3 ± 10.17 62 ± 12.44
 18–45 14 (6) 3 (4) 11 (7)
 46–60 56 (26) 17 (26) 39 (25)
 > 60 151 (68) 46 (70) 105 (68)
BMI 32.6 ± 6.44 32.4 ± 5.8 32.7 ± 6.7
Education
 Primary 20 (9) 11 (17) 9 (6)
 Secondary 126 (57) 39 (59) 87 (56)
 University 75 (34) 16 (24) 59 (38)
Employment status
 Active (employed) 81 (37) 18 (27) 63 (41)
 Inactive (unemployed/retired) 140 (63) 48 (73) 92 (59)
Time since diagnosis
 ≤ 1 year 15 (6) 3 (5) 12 (8)
 1–3 years 11 (5) 4 (6) 7 (5)
 3–5 years 30 (14) 6 (9) 24 (15)
 > 5 year 165 (75) 53 (80) 112 (72)
Diabetes therapy
 Medication no./day 2.5 ± 3.1 2.7 ± 4.5 2.4 ± 2.3
 Units of insulin/day 1.66 ± 1.8 1.65 ± 1.8 1.67 ± 1.8
 Diet needed 177 (80) 45 (68) 132 (85)
 Physical activity need 149 (67) 34 (51) 115(74)
HbA1c value* 7.2 ± 1.39 7.74 ± 1.85 7.02 ± 1.11
MMAS-8 6.86 ± 1.26 6.6 ± 1.36 6.97 ± 1.2
DSMQ “Sum scale”* 7.65 ± 1.23 7.13 ± 1.28 7.85 ± 1.15
 Subscale “Glucose management”* 7.9 ± 1.74 7.37 ± 1.76 8.2 ± 1.69
 Subscale “Dietary control” 6.97 ± 1.65 6.96 ± 1.84 6.9 ± 1.55
 Subscale “Physical activity”* 6.47 ± 2.59 5.9 ± 2.48 7.06 ± 2.58
 Subscale “Health-care use”* 8.84 ± 1.68 7.8 ± 1.93 9.25 ± 1.39
  1. *Significant differences between inpatient and outpatient groups (Significant differences p < 0.05; Nonsignificant differences p ≥ 0.05)