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Table 4 Mixed-effects linear regression estimates for associations between academic performance, general health and HRQoL utility scores in participants

From: Association of academic performance, general health with health-related quality of life in primary and high school students in China

  Overall (N = 4388) Gender School type
Model 1 Model 2 Boys (N = 2204) Girls (N = 2184) Primary (N = 1602)
Mean (SE) 95% CI P Mean (SE) 95% CI P Mean (SE) 95% CI P Mean (SE) 95% CI P Mean (SE) 95% CI P
Self-rated academic performancea
 Fair 0.048 (0.015) 0.019, 0.078 0.001 0.045 (0.011) 0.024, 0.066 0.000 0.054(0.012) 0.029, 0.079 0.000 0.035 (0.013) 0.008, 0.061 0.010 0.052 (0.019) 0.013, 0.090 0.009
 Good 0.082 (0.015) 0.053, 0.112 0.000 0.074 (0.010) 0.053, 0.095 0.000 0.080(0.012) 0.056, 0.104 0.000 0.066 (0.013) 0.039, 0.092 0.000 0.073(0.019) 0.036, 0.111 0.000
Self-assessed general health statusb
 Fair 0.119 (0.018) 0.083, 0.154 0.000 0.111 (0.013) 0.086,0.136 0.000 0.134(0.018) 0.098, 0.170 0.000 0.085 (0.018) 0.050, 0.120 0.000 0.091(0.024) 0.044, 0.138 0.000
 Good 0.183 (0.018) 0.148, 0.218 0.000 0.171 (0.013) 0.146, 0.196 0.000 0.193(0.018) 0.157, 0.228 0.000 0.147 (0.018) 0.112, 0.182 0.000 0.154(0.023) 0.108, 0.200 0.000
  School type Residence
Junior high (N = 1455) Senior high (N = 1331) Rural (N = 2030) Sub-urban (N = 997) Urban (N = 1361)
Mean (SE) 95% CI P Mean (SE) 95% CI P Mean (SE) 95% CI P Mean (SE) 95% CI P Mean (SE) 95% CI P
Self-rated academic performancea
 Fair 0.055(0.018) 0.018, 0.091 0.005 0.032 (0.020) −0.010, 0.073 0.129 0.036 (0.016) 0.005, 0.067 0.025 0.057 (0.019) 0.019, 0.095 0.004 0.046 (0.020) 0.006, 0.087 0.027
 Good 0.075(0.018) 0.039, 0.112 0.000 0.072(0.021) 0.030, 0.113 0.001 0.064 (0.015) 0.033, 0.094 0.000 0.076 (0.019) 0.039, 0.114 0.000 0.082 (0.019) 0.041, 0.122 0.000
Self-assessed general health statusb
 Fair 0.143(0.022) 0.099, 0.187 0.000 0.103(0.021) 0.061, 0.144 0.000 0.113 (0.019) 0.075, 0.150 0.000 0.115 (0.028) 0.059, 0.170 0.000 0.099 (0.022) 0.056, 0.142 0.000
 Good 0.191(0.022) 0.148, 0.234 0.000 0.173(0.021) 0.131, 0.215 0.000 0.178 (0.019) 0.141, 0.215 0.000 0.170 (0.028) 0.115, 0.225 0.000 0.158 (0.022) 0.115, 0.201 0.000
  1. Mixed-effects linear regression analysis with adjustment for age, gender, school type, residence, body weight status, parental educational attainment, physical activity, screen time, sleep time, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverage and fast foods, and class-level clustering effects
  2. aPoor as the reference group
  3. bPoor as the reference group