Skip to main content

Table 4 Crude associations between sociodemographic variables, self-efficacy, self-esteem, pain, sleep, loneliness, stress, and HRQOL examined by linear regression analysesa,b,c N = 696

From: Health-related quality of life is strongly associated with self-efficacy, self-esteem, loneliness, and stress in 14–15-year-old adolescents: a cross-sectional study

  Physical well-being Psychological well-being
B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7
Gender (ref = boy) − 0.21*        − 0.27*       
Adult members of the household (ref = both parents)
 Part-time with each parent − 0.07        − 0.09       
 One parent and one stepparent − 0.06        − 0.06       
 One parent − 0.08        − 0.12*       
 Other caregivers − 0.02        − 0.08       
Parents’ work status (ref = both parents working)
 One parent working − 0.10*        − 0.11*       
 No parent working − 0.08        − 0.00       
School absence (ref = 0–4 days)d
 5–10 days − 0.14*        − 0.13*       
 > 10 days − 0.09        − 0.08       
Self-efficacy   0.43*        0.53*      
Self-esteem    0.44*        0.67*     
Pain on average     − 0.29*        − 0.41*    
Frequency of enough sleep (ref = always)
 Usually      − 0.23*        − 0.30*   
 Sometimes      − 0.27*        − 0.39*   
 Rarely      − 0.31*        − 0.38*   
 Never      − 0.18*        − 0.24*   
Loneliness       − 0.37*        − 0.62*  
Stress        − 0.43*        − 0.72*
R2 adj 0.106 0.186 0.192 0.086 0.083 0.133 0.187 0.150 0.276 0.449 0.171 0.112 0.390 0.518
  Autonomy and parent relations Social support and peers
B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7
Gender (ref = boy) − 0.06        − 0.05       
Adult members of the household (ref = both parents)
 Part-time with each parent − 0.06        − 0.01       
 One parent and one stepparent − 0.07        − 0.08       
 One parent − 0.13*        − 0.05       
 Other caregivers − 0.11*        − 0.03       
Parents’ work status (ref = both parents working)
 One parent working − 0.06        − 0.03       
 No parent working − 0.07        0.05       
School absence (ref = 0–4 days)d               
 5–10 days − 0.06        − 0.06       
 > 10 days − 0.02        − 0.05       
Self-efficacy   0.38*        0.32*      
Self-esteem    0.43*        0.35*     
Pain on average     − 0.29*        − 0.14*    
Frequency of enough sleep (ref = always)
 Usually      − 0.15        − 0.22*   
 Sometimes      − 0.26*        − 0.24*   
 Rarely      − 0.24*        − 0.20*   
 Never      − 0.15*        − 0.16*   
Loneliness       − 0.39*        − 0.55*  
Stress        − 0.52*        − 0.39*
R2 adj 0.049 0.145 0.181 0.080 0.053 0.153 0.270 0.010 0.104 0.123 0.018 0.032 0.297 0.153
  School environment
B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7
Gender (ref = boy) − 0.14*       
Adult members of the household (ref = both parents)
 Part-time with each parent − 0.03       
 One parent and one stepparent − 0.04       
 One parent − 0.05       
 Other caregivers − 0.02       
Parents’ work status (ref = both parents working)
 One parent working − 0.07       
 No parent working − 0.05       
School absence (ref = 0–4 days)d
 5–10 days − 0.12*       
 > 10 days − 0.06       
Self-efficacy   0.49*      
Self-esteem    0.51*     
Pain on average     − 0.34*    
Frequency of enough sleep (ref = always)
 Usually      − 0.23*   
 Sometimes      − 0.37*   
 Rarely      − 0.35*   
 Never      − 0.22*   
Loneliness       − 0.40*  
Stress        − 0.56*
R2 adj 0.046 0.240 0.262 0.113 0.112 0.162 0.310
  1. aLinear regression analyses were performed separately for each of the five KIDSCREEN subscales as the dependent variables.
  2. bThe independent variables were grouped into seven blocks: B1–B7.
  3. ͨThe strength of the associations is described in terms of standardized regression coefficients and adjusted R2.
  4. ͩThe variable was recoded into three categories: “0–4 days” (none, 1–4 days), “5–10 days” (5–7 days, 8–10 days), or “ > 10 days”.
  5. *P ≤ 0.01