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Table 2 Characteristics of the sample (N = 696)

From: Health-related quality of life is strongly associated with self-efficacy, self-esteem, loneliness, and stress in 14–15-year-old adolescents: a cross-sectional study

Variable Total (696) Boys (n = 296) Girls (n = 400) P value
Age, mean (SD) 14.09 (0.33) 14.08 (0.36) 14.09 (0.30) 0.905
Adult members of the household, N (%)     0.185
 Both parents 508 (73.0) 224 (75.7) 284 (71.0)  
 Alternates between two parents 100 (14.4) 45 (15.2) 55 (13.8)  
 One parent and one stepparent 20 (2.9) 6 (2.0) 14 (3.5)  
 One parent 55 (7.9) 16 (5.4) 39 (9.8)  
 Other caregivers 13 (1.9) 5(1.7) 8 (2.0)  
Parents’ marital status, N (%)a     0.642
 Two parent family 492 (70.7) 212 (71.6) 280 (70.0)  
 Single/divorced parent family 204 (29.3) 84 (28.4) 120 (30.0)  
Parents’ birthplace, N (%)     0.267
 Both parents born in Norway 551 (79.2) 241 (81.4) 310 (77.5)  
 One parent born in Norway 87 (12.5) 30 (10.1) 57 (14.2)  
 Both parents born in another country 58 (8.3) 25 (8.4) 33 (8.3)  
Parents’ work status, N (%)     0.013
 Both parents working 547 (78.6) 247 (83.4) 300 (75.0)  
 One parent working 133 (19.1) 46 (15.5) 87 (21.8)  
 No parent working 16 (2.3) 3 (1.0) 13 (3.3)  
Number of siblings, N (%)b     0.730
 None 30 (4.3) 11 (3.7) 19 (4.8)  
 1 263 (37.8) 107 (36.1) 156 (39.0)  
 2 244 (35.1) 109 (36.8) 135 (33.8)  
 ≥ 3 159 (22.8) 69 (36.8) 90 (22.5)  
Moved during the previous 5 years, N (%)c     0.027
 No 474 (68.1) 215 (72.6) 259 (64.8)  
 Yes 222 (31.9) 81 (27.4) 141 (35.3)  
School absence for the previous 3 months, N (%)d     0.812
 0–4 days 595 (85.5) 255 (86.1) 340 (85.0)  
 5–10 days 84 (12.1) 35 (11.8) 49 (12.3)  
 > 10 days 17 (2.4) 8 (2.0) 11 (2.8)  
  1. Continuous variables analyzed using independent t-test. Categorical variables analyzed using χ2-test
  2. SD, standard deviation
  3. aThe variable was dichotomized as “two parents” (married or cohabiting) or “single parent” (unmarried, divorced, or widowed)
  4. bThe variable was recoded into four categories: “none,” “1,” “2,” or “ ≥ 3” (3, 4, 5, > 5)
  5. cThe variable was dichotomized as “yes” (moved 1 time, 2–4 times, ≥ 5 times) or “no.”
  6. dThe variable was recoded into three categories: “0–4 days” (none, 1–4 days), “5–10 days” (5–7 days, 8–10 days), or “ > 10 days.”