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Table 1 Overview of instruments used in this study

From: Health-related quality of life is strongly associated with self-efficacy, self-esteem, loneliness, and stress in 14–15-year-old adolescents: a cross-sectional study

Factors Instruments Number of items αª
HRQOL KIDSCREEN-27   
 Physical well-being 5 0.81
 Psychological well-being 7 0.87
 Autonomy and parent relations 7 0.77
 Social support and peers 4 0.78
 School environment 4 0.80
Self-efficacy Generalized Self‐Efficacy Scale (GSE) 10 0.87
Self-esteem Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale (RSES) 4 0.79
Pain Brief Pain Inventory (BPI)   
 Having pain today 1  
 Pain on average 1  
 Pain interference with activity 3 0.81
 Pain interference with emotions 4 0.90
Lübeck Pain-Screening Questionnaire (LPQ)   
 Pain duration 1  
 Pain frequency 1  
OTC analgesic questions (derived from SUS)   
 Intake of OTC analgesics during the last 4 weeks 1  
 Frequency of OTC analgesics intake 1  
Sleep School Sleep Habits Survey   
 Problems with sleepiness 1  
 Frequency of enough sleep 1  
Loneliness UCLA Loneliness Scale (ULS-8) 8 0.80
Stress Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ) 30 0.93
  1. OTC, Over-the-counter; SUS, “Pain, youth and self-medication study”
  2. ªCronbach’s α coefficient values in this study