Skip to main content

Table 3 Characteristics of studies included in the systematic review owing to reporting the association between dietary patterns and health-related quality of life

From: A systematic review of the association between dietary patterns and health-related quality of life

First author Year Country Design Disease status Sex Age range Total sample size N. of cases / controls Dietary pattern assessment method HRQOL assessment method Result Adjusted variables
Mozzillo et al. [21] 2017 Italy Cross-sectional Participants with type 1 diabetes Both 13 -19 242 110women/ 132 men MED score by KIDMED (16 questions) score to assess adherence Italian version of the PedsQL 3.0 DM No significant associations between MED and quality of life were found -
Moravejolahkami et al. [47] 2019 Iran Cross-sectional Multiple sclerosis patients Both 20–60 261 210 women/ 51 men Factor analysis with three dietary patterns ("Fruits, Vegetables, Low fat dairy-based dietary" pattern, "Mediterranean-Like" dietary pattern and "Western-Like" dietary pattern) by semi-quantitative FFQ MSQOL-54 Fruits, Vegetables, Low fat dairy-based pattern and Mediterranean-Like pattern were associated with higher physical and mental health composite scores (P < 0.001) Age, sex, type of multiple sclerosis and duration of the disease
Sanchez-Aguadero et al. [44] 2016 Spain Longitudinal follow-up study Subjects with intermediate cardiovascular risk Both 35–74 314 159 women/ 155 men MED score by FFQ SF-12 Greater adherence to the MED was associated with higher scores on the SF-12 mental component, social functioning. 1.17 point increase in the mental component for each increase of 1 point in the MED adherence score (p < 0.01) Age, sex, hypertension, dyslipidemia and Charlson Comorbidity Index
Zaragoza-Marti et al. [45] 2016 Spain Cross-sectional Elderly free-living Both More than 60 351 201 women/ 150 men MDP by short FFQ (MEDIS-FFQ) validated for older adult SF-12 Higher adherence to MED was associated with higher QOL. In adjusted model, MED was associated with PCS and MCS in men and with MCS in women Age
Kim et al. [17] 2018 Spain Cross-sectional Breast cancer survivors Women 12–79 years 232 58/58 Factor analysis with two major dietary pattern "Healthy" and "Western" assessed by non-consecutive 3-day dietary record on 2 weekdays and 1 weekend day EORTC QLQ-C30) and (QLQ-BR23) "Healthy" dietary patterns were associated with better scores for dyspnea but worse scores for insomnia among breast cancer survivors Age, BMI, marital status, education level, cancer stage, physical activity, time since surgery and menopausal status
Gigic et al. [27] 2017 USA Longitudinal follow-up study Colorectal cancer patients Both  ≥ 18 192 58/58 Factor analysis with four major dietary pattern of "Western", "Fruit & vegetable", "Bread & butter" and "High- carbohydrate" by FFQ EORTC QLQ-C30 Patients following a "Western" diet had lower chances to improve in physical functioning, constipation and diarrhea over 12 months post-surgery. Patients following a ''Fruit & vegetable" diet showed improving diarrhea scores Sex, age, tumor stage, tumor site, and stoma
Holmes et al. [22] 2018 France Cross-sectional Subjects with minor digestive symptoms Women 18–60 years 324 100/ 58 Factor analysis with four major dietary pattern of "Healthy", "Unhealthy", "Balance" and "Convenience" by non-consecutives 24 h recall method Food Benefit Assessment questionnaire No significant difference in none of dimensions of quality of life in different clusters was observed Age
Perez-Tasigchana et al. [23] 2016 Spain UAM-cohort (baseline data) Community dwelling individuals Both  ≥ 60 2,376 594/594 MED was assessed using three approaches of MDP index, PREDIMED score and Trichopoulou’s MED score using FFQ SF-36 No significant associations between the MDP and the PCS or the MCS were found Sex, age, education, tobacco, BMI, abdominal obesity, hypertension, leisure-time physical activity, time spent watching TV, energy intake, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, CHD, stroke, cancer, and depression
Perez-Tasigchana et al. [23] 2016 Spain Seniors-ENRICA cohort (baseline data) Community dwelling individuals Both  ≥ 60 1,911 478/477 MED was assessed using three approaches of MDP index, PREDIMED score and Trichopoulou’s MED score using FFQ SF-12v.2 A higher PREDIMED score was associated with a slightly better PCS; when compared with the lowest tertile of PREDIMED score, the beta coefficient for PCS was 0.55 (−0.48, 1.59) in the second tertile, and 1.34 (0.21, 2.47) in the highest tertile. However, the PREDIMED score was non-significantly associated with a better MCS score. The MSD did not show an association with either the PCS or the MCS Sex, age, education, tobacco, BMI, abdominal obesity, hypertension, leisure-time physical activity, and time spent watching TV, energy intake, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, CHD, stroke, cancer, and depression
Alcubierre et al. [34] 2016 Spain Cross-sectional Patients with type 2 diabetes Both  ≥ 18 294 294 rMED by FFQ ADDQoL-19 The adherence to the MED showed no significant association with the overall QOL score. However, rMED was associated with some HRQOL dimensions: travels, self-confidence and freedom to eat and drink Adjusted for insulin treatment, retinopathy, diabetes duration, age (> 65 years), waist, ethnicity
Milte et al. [46] 2015 Australia Cross-sectional Old individuals Both 55–65 years 2,457 516/887 MED diet score by FFQ SF-36 MED score was positively associated with energy component of quality of life (OR = 1.53, CI = 1.11–2.10) only in women Age, education, urban or rural location and menopausal status in women, smoking, physical activity and BMI
Ruano et al. [28] 2013 Spain Cohort study (baseline data) University graduates Both  ≥ 18 11,125 2,225/2,225 Factor analysis with four two dietary pattern of MDP score and "Western" dietary pattern by FFQ Spanish version of the SF-36 "Western" dietary pattern was associated with lower HRQOL in all domains. The MDP was associated with better HRQOL domains Age, sex, smoking, leisure time physical activity, total energy intake, baseline BMI and history of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, CVD
Bonaccio et al. [35] 2013 Italy Cross-sectional Community dwelling individuals Both  ≥ 35 years 16,936 4,234/4,234 Trichopoulou’s MED score by FFQ SF-36 Mental health was associated positively with MED score, IMI and an "Olive oil and vegetable" pattern, but negatively with an "Eggs and sweets" pattern. Physical health was associated positively with MED score and "Olive oil and vegetable" pattern, but negatively with a "Meat and pasta" pattern Age, sex, BMI, total energy intake, total physical activity, education, income, total socioeconomic status, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia
Galilea-Zabalza et al. [36] 2018 Spain Cross-sectional Community dwelling individuals Both 55–70 years 6,430 1,486/1,567 Traditional MDP score by 17-point questionnaire to assess adherence Spanish version of HRQOL questionnaire Higher adherence to the MED was independently associated with significantly better scores in the eight dimensions of HRQOL Sex, age and recruitment center, BMI, physical activity, smoking status, marital status, highest level of education attained, high blood pressure, diagnosis of type-2 diabetes, history of depression, chronic lung disease, cancer
  1. FFQ Food Frequency Questionnaire, PedsQL 3.0 DM Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 3.0 Diabetes Module, MSQOL-54 Multiple Sclerosis Quality Of Life-54 questionnaire, EORTC QLQ-C30 European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality-of-life Questionnaire Core 30, EORTC QLQ-BR23 The EORTC Breast Cancer-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire, ADDQoL-19 Audit of Diabetes-Dependent Quality of Life, IMI Italian Mediterranean diet index, CHD coronary heart disease, PREDIMED score prevention with Mediterranean diet score rMED Relative Mediterranean diet score, CVD cardiovascular disease, PCS Physical component score, MCS Mental component score, MEDP Mediterranean style dietary pattern, MDP Mediterranean dietary pattern MED Mediterranean diet, HRQOL Health-related quality of life, SF-12, The 12-item Short Form, SF-36 The 36-item Short Form, EQ-5D The European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions, QOL Quality of Life, BMI Body Mass Index