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Table 4 Mean (standard deviation) of Short HIV Stigma sub-scale scores as a function of antiretroviral therapy initiation and treatment adherence in Grindr, Social Media, and Hornet samples

From: Translation and validation of the Short HIV Stigma scale in Brazilian Portuguese

  Antiretroviral treatment usea Adherenceb Adherencec
No Yes Test statisticd pd No Yes Test statisticd pd No Yes Test statisticd pd
Grindr, N (%) 4 (3.5) 110 (96.5)    39 (35.5) 71 (64.5)    14 (12.7) 96 (87.3)   
Personalized stigma 9.5 (3.0) 5.7 (2.8) 365 0.02 6.7 (3.0) 5.2 (2.6) 998 0.01 5.0 (2.3) 5.9 (2.9) 768 0.38
Disclosure concerns 12.0 (0.0) 11.1 (1.5) 296 0.16 11.1 (1.5) 11.1 (1.6) 1402 0.90 11.1 (1.5) 11.1 (1.6) 687 0.87
Concerns about public attitudes 11.0 (1.4) 9.8 (1.9) 304 0.19 10.1 (1.9) 9.6 (2.0) 1176 0.19 9.4 (1.6) 9.8 (2.0) 802 0.24
Negative self-image 8.0 (3.7) 7.8 (2.6) 231 0.87 8.0 (2.4) 7.6 (2.6) 1286 0.54 7.3 (2.2) 7.8 (2.6) 757 0.45
Social media, N (%) 6 (3.7) 158 (96.3)    70 (45.2) 85 (54.8)    20 (12.9) 135 (87.1)   
Personalized stigma 4.5 (2.0) 6.0 (2.8) 326 0.19 6.6 (3.0) 5.6 (2.5) 2392 0.03 8.8 (2.3) 5.6 (2.6) 507  < 0.01
Disclosure concerns 8.8 (3.2) 8.9 (3.2) 433 0.72 8.8 (3.2) 9.1 (3.1) 3125 0.58 9.8 (2.2) 8.9 (3.3) 1248 0.58
Concerns about public attitudes 8.5 (3.4) 8.7 (2.4) 487 0.85 8.8 (2.5) 8.6 (2.3) 2705 0.32 8.9 (2.2) 8.6 (2.4) 1270 0.69
Negative self-image 7.5 (3.3) 6.6 (2.5) 551 0.50 6.8 (2.7) 6.6 (2.3) 2899 0.78 7.2 (2.9) 6.6 (2.4) 1202 0.31
Hornet, N (%) 78 (4.3) 1746 (95.7)    741 (42.4) 1005 (57.6)    247 (14.1) 1499 (85.9)   
Personalized stigma 5.4 (2.7) 5.5 (2.5) 0.27 0.79 5.7 (2.6) 5.4 (2.5) 2.36 0.02 5.9 (2.7) 5.5 (2.5) 2.45 0.01
Disclosure concerns 8.4 (3.6) 10.7 (1.9) 9.68  < 0.01 10.7 (1.9) 10.6 (1.9) 0.90 0.37 10.7 (1.8) 10.7 (1.9) 0.36 0.72
Concerns about public attitudes 8.5 (2.6) 9.3 (2.2) 3.1  < 0.01 9.5 (2.2) 9.3 (2.2) 1.93 0.05 9.7 (2.1) 9.3 (2.2) 2.49 0.01
Negative self-image 6.8 (2.8) 7.3 (2.6) 1.49 0.14 7.6 (2.6) 7.1 (2.5) 4.17  < 0.01 7.8 (2.7) 7.2 (2.5) 3.53  < 0.01
  1. a “Have you started antiretroviral treatment for your HIV-infection?” Possible options Yes/No
  2. bValidated instrument (WebAd-Q, Vale et al. 2017) composed of three questions: In the prior 7 days, (1) did you take any of your pills at a different time than the prescribed scheduled time, (2) did you forget to take any of your prescribed pills, and (3) did you take more or less of your prescribed pills. Response options include Yes/No/I don’t remember. Adherence was defined as a “No” to all three questions
  3. cA visual analog scale was provided along with a question “Please mark below the value that corresponds to how much of your antiretroviral medication you took in the past 30 days.” Responses were coded as adherence if participants selected ≥ 95%
  4. dTest statistic and corresponding p-values for Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test for Grindr and social media samples and Student’s t-test for Hornet sample
  5. *Adherence items are applicable to those on treatment and for whom data was not missing (see Fig. 1)