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Fig. 6 | Health and Quality of Life Outcomes

Fig. 6

From: Impact of non-cardiovascular comorbidities on the quality of life of patients with chronic heart failure: a scoping review

Fig. 6

Relative health-related quality of life of patients with non-cardiovascular comorbidities compared to patients without comorbidities. Non-cardiovascular comorbidities are anemia or iron deficiency (ID), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), diabetes mellitus, or mental and behavioral disorders. Health-related quality of life is according to the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLHFQ) (a), the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) (b), and the generic European Quality of Life 5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) and 36-item Short Form Health survey (SF-36) (c). The differences represented are those in which the health-related quality of life was valued globally. The sign of relative health-related quality of life in the MLHFQ has been modified in such a way that the negative difference means a worse quality of life for patients with comorbidities

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