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Table 3 Comparison of change between the HIT group and the MICT group from baseline to follow-up

From: High-intensity interval training and health-related quality of life in de novo heart transplant recipients – results from a randomized controlled trial

Variables Change within the HIT group
Mean ± SD
(n = 37)
Change within the MICT group
Mean ± SD
(n = 41)
Difference in mean change between groups
mean [95% CI]
P value Difference in change between groups
Health-related quality of life SF-36v2 components summaries and subscales
 Physical Component Summary (PCS) 6.3 ± 8.2** 5.7 ± 5.7** 0.6 [− 3.1, 4.2] 0.762
 Mental Component Summary (MCS) 0.9 ± 12.5 − 2.6 ± 9.3 3.4 [− 1.5, 8.5] 0.170
 Physical Functioning 5.8 ± 5.6** 5.2 ± 5.6** 0.6 [− 2.0, 3.2] 0.653
 Role Physical 10.5 ± 11.2** 6.2 ± 10.0** 4.3 [− 0.6, 9.1] 0.082
 Bodily Pain 2.7 ± 11.5 1.0 ± 11.4 1.7 [− 3.5, 6.9] 0.509
 General Health 2.6 ± 8.3 1.4 ± 8.6 1.1 [− 2.7, 4.9] 0.555
 Vitality 2.0 ± 9.2 2.6 ± 7.3* − 0.6 [− 4.3, 3.2] 0.760
 Social Functioning 3.6 ± 10.5* 2.0 ± 11.6 1.5 [− 3.5, 6.5] 0.541
 Role Emotional 5.2 ± 13.4* − 2.0 ± 11 7.2 [1.6, 12.8] 0.012
 Mental Health 0.6 ± 9.0 − 1.4 ± 7.3 2.0 [− 1.7, 5.7] 0.284
 HADS Anxiety −1.0a −0.8a   0.920c
 HADS Depression −1.0b −0.2a   0.427c
Cardiopulmonary exercise test
 VO2peak (mL/kg/min) 4.8 ± 4.1** 3.1 ± 3.5** 1.8 [0.1, 3.5] 0.044
 Improvement in mL/kg/min (%) 25.2 ± 21.1** 15.1 ± 17.8** 10.1 [1.3, 19.0] 0.025
 % of predicted VO2peak 13.2 ± 10.7** 8.5 ± 9.1** 4.7 [0.2, 9.2] 0.040
 RPE (Borg scale score) 0.1 ± 0.8 0.3 ± 1.2 0.2 [−0.3, 0.7] 0.424
 RER 0.02 ± 0.1 −0.01 ± 0.1 0.02 [− 0.03, 0.1] 0.338
Muscular capacity
 Maximal muscle strength extensors (Newton meter) 54 ± 49** 36 ± 34** 178 [− 3, 39] 0.094
 Muscular exercise capacity extensors (Joule) 1016 ± 812** 551 ± 780** 464 [63, 863] 0.024
  1. Health-related quality of life, exercise capacity and muscular strength at baseline (~ 11 weeks after HTx and at 9 months intervention (first yearly annual follow-up). Variables are presented as mean ± standard deviation. CI Confidence Interval, HADS Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, HIT High-intensity interval training, MICT moderate intensity contionuous training, SD standard deviation, RER Respiratory exchange ratio, RPE Rated perceived exertion, VAS visual analogue scale
  2. Within group: **p < 0.001, *p < 0.05
  3. aBased on negative ranks
  4. bBased on positive ranks
  5. cMann-Whitney U test