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Table 5 Response mapping model of LTCQ fitted using multinomial logistic regression

From: Estimating EQ-5D utilities based on the Short-Form Long Term Conditions Questionnaire (LTCQ-8)

L1 (No Problems) L2 vs L1 L3 vs L1 L4 vs L1 L5 vs L1
Slight Problems Moderate Problems Severe Problems Unable
Mobility
 LTCQ4. Control of daily life (Never)
  Rarely 0.669 (0.913) −0.779 (0.635) −1.97 (0.591)* −2.85 (0.664)*
  Sometimes 0.92 (0.917) −0.358 (0.638) −1.542 (0.598)* −2.064 (0.652)*
  Often 1.253 (0.935) −0.981 (0.677) −1.581 (0.645)* −2.67 (0.762)*
  Always 0.9 (0.944) −1.407 (0.705)* −2.441 (0.696)* −2.752 (0.811)*
 LTCQ7. Safe at home (Never)
  Rarely 1.376 (1.277) 1.058 (1.002) −0.488 (0.858) −0.718 (1.168)
  Sometimes 1.158 (1.252) 1.065 (0.978) 0.396 (0.796) 1.181 (1.025)
  Often 1.718 (1.245) 1.381 (0.98) 1.073 (0.801) 2.057 (1.036)*
  Always 1.713 (1.248) 1.769 (0.982) 0.526 (0.806) 2.121 (1.038)*
 LTCQ8. Safe outside home (Never)
  Rarely −0.357 (0.671) −0.488 (0.578) − 0.689 (0.562) − 0.976 (0.66)
  Sometimes − 0.429 (0.641) − 0.628 (0.567) −1.457 (0.556)* −1.449 (0.639)*
  Often − 0.927 (0.684) −1.095 (0.615) −2.633 (0.632)* −1.611 (0.727)*
  Always −1.544 (0.679)* −2.213 (0.625)* −3.044 (0.626)* −3.306 (0.754)*
 LTCQ10. Dependant (Always)
  Often 0.405 (0.419) 0.226 (0.339) −1.177 (0.335)* −1.791 (0.439)*
  Sometimes 0.582 (0.411) −0.182 (0.35) −1.599 (0.362)* −2.667 (0.551)*
  Rarely 0.349 (0.435) −1.099 (0.424)* −3.279 (0.608)* −3.424 (0.829)*
  Never −0.197 (0.448) −2.724 (0.548)* −3.998 (0.654)* −4.935 (1.116)*
 LTCQ11. Lonely (Always)
  Often 0.38 (0.464) 0.379 (0.402) 0.685 (0.432) −0.26 (0.567)
  Sometimes 0.574 (0.463) 0.281 (0.42) 1.205 (0.445)* 0.684 (0.542)
  Rarely 0.69 (0.501) 0.504 (0.468) 1.534 (0.516)* 0.871 (0.654)
  Never 0.778 (0.478) 0.733 (0.447) 1.388 (0.512)* 0.974 (0.651)
 LTCQ12. Stigma (Always)
  Often −0.362 (0.554) 0.207 (0.509) 0.416 (0.501) 0.661 (0.604)
  Sometimes −0.429 (0.533) 0.414 (0.494) 0.915 (0.487) 0.709 (0.585)
  Rarely −0.495 (0.55) 0.373 (0.516) 0.154 (0.537) 0.352 (0.655)
  Never 0.028 (0.55) 0.884 (0.530) 1.142 (0.550)* 0.688 (0.668)
 LTCQ15. Unhappy (Always)
  Often −0.218 (0.46) −0.392 (0.400) − 0.465 (0.408) − 0.397 (0.509)
  Sometimes 0.182 (0.474) 0.139 (0.425) −0.674 (0.449) − 0.443 (0.577)
  Rarely −0.363 (0.524) −0.42 (0.510) − 0.49 (0.544) 0.649 (0.694)
  Never −0.186 (0.527) 0.238 (0.509) −0.377 (0.577) − 0.332 (0.829)
 LTCQ19. Confident (Never)
  Rarely −1.282 (0.748) −0.628 (0.722) − 0.475 (0.722) − 0.215 (0.788)
  Sometimes − 1.711 (0.691)* − 0.823 (0.681) − 0.066 (0.684) − 0.415 (0.75)
  Often − 1.588 (0.71)* − 0.564 (0.708) 0.256 (0.721) −1.098 (0.834)
  Always −1.866 (0.706)* − 1.147 (0.718) − 0.143 (0.739) − 1.011 (0.843)
  Constant − 1.031 (1.428) 0.56 (1.123) 2.796 (0.947)* 2.424 (1.114)*
Self-care
 LTCQ4. Control of daily life (Never)
  Rarely −1.097 (0.664) −1.309 (0.615)* − 1.970 (0.640)* − 2.689 (0.643)*
  Sometimes − 1.038 (0.653) − 1.539 (0.615)* − 2.239 (0.640)* − 2.919 (0.649)*
  Often − 1.354 (0.688)* − 2.537 (0.691)* − 2.767 (0.776)* −3.368 (0.735)*
  Always − 1.889 (0.757)* − 2.055 (0.732)* − 4.186 (1.037)* −3.548 (0.819)*
 LTCQ7. Safe at home (Never)
  Rarely −0.416 (0.878) 1.185 (0.957) 0.423 (1.092) −0.113 (1.172)
  Sometimes − 0.269 (0.812) 0.209 (0.928) 1.47 (0.993) 0.877 (1.052)
  Often −0.345 (0.811) 0.988 (0.91) 1.347 (1.006) 1.065 (1.058)
  Always −0.558 (0.815) 0.733 (0.918) 1.462 (1.004) 0.914 (1.058)
 LTCQ8. Safe outside home (Never)
  Rarely 0.297 (0.546) −0.653 (0.500) −0.335 (0.579) − 0.391 (0.592)
  Sometimes 0.151 (0.527) −0.936 (0.478)* −0.878 (0.568) − 0.917 (0.567)
  Often −0.593 (0.578) − 0.914 (0.531) −1.362 (0.750) − 0.822 (0.654)
  Always −1.335 (0.616)* −2.352 (0.605)* −1.828 (0.740)* − 1.902 (0.680)*
 LTCQ10. Dependant (Always)
  Often 0.074 (0.309) −0.534 (0.307) −1.301 (0.420)* −1.699 (0.421)*
  Sometimes −0.347 (0.331) −1.345 (0.365)* −1.479 (0.489)* −2.661 (0.596)*
  Rarely −1.176 (0.460)* −3.128 (0.783)* −15.851 (619.704) −2.987 (0.817)*
  Never −2.646 (0.803)* −3.201 (0.831)* −2.136 (0.864)* −4.182 (1.131)*
 LTCQ11. Lonely (Always)
  Often −0.138 (0.4) 0.817 (0.441) −0.068 (0.543) 0.053 (0.556)
  Sometimes 0.048 (0.409) 0.775 (0.466) 0.665 (0.538) 0.243 (0.554)
  Rarely −0.014 (0.464) −0.013 (0.569) − 0.123 (0.705) 0.160 (0.659)
  Never 0.138 (0.476) 0.974 (0.538) −0.504 (0.806) 0.652 (0.662)
 LTCQ12. Stigma (Always)
  Often 0.675 (0.495) 0.532 (0.503) −0.159 (0.575) 0.291 (0.601)
  Sometimes 0.56 (0.487) 0.345 (0.491) 0.046 (0.544) 0.418 (0.570)
  Rarely 0.373 (0.515) 0.212 (0.528) −1.226 (0.730) 0.081 (0.648)
  Never 0.658 (0.533) 0.014 (0.564) −0.507 (0.693) 0.163 (0.661)
 LTCQ15. Unhappy (Always)
  Often −0.385 (0.375) −0.412 (0.391) − 0.269 (0.477) 0.087 (0.488)
  Sometimes −0.258 (0.399) −0.151 (0.426) 0.026 (0.542) −0.026 (0.549)
  Rarely −0.002 (0.504) −0.056 (0.586) 1.027 (0.764) 0.884 (0.705)
  Never 0.06 (0.542) 0.029 (0.610) 1.292 (0.883) −1.618 (1.190)
 LTCQ19. Confident (Never)
  Rarely 0.67 (0.818) −0.402 (0.676) −0.049 (0.708) − 0.686 (0.737)
  Sometimes 0.446 (0.771) −0.615 (0.617) −1.111 (0.676) −1.128 (0.673)
  Often 0.35 (0.795) −0.882 (0.651) −1.97 (0.798)* − 1.176 (0.73)
  Always −0.016 (0.821) −1.121 (0.679) − 1.887 (0.822)* − 0.986 (0.767)
  Constant 0.613 (1.095) 1.801 (1.044) 2.362 (1.072)* 2.893 (1.119)*
Usual activities
 LTCQ4. Control of daily life (Never)
  Rarely 1.007 (1.102) 1.22 (0.964) −0.325 (0.888) −1.517 (0.894)
  Sometimes 0.842 (1.015) 0.869 (0.882) −1.009 (0.801) −2.246 (0.811)*
  Often 0.262 (1.018) 0.201 (0.893) −1.655 (0.829)* −3.144 (0.882)*
  Always −0.022 (1.022) − 0.538 (0.911) −3.052 (0.906)* − 3.369 (0.903)*
 LTCQ7. Safe at home (Never)
  Rarely 0.87 (1.439) 1.434 (1.29) 1.463 (1.322) 1.116 (1.394)
  Sometimes 0.972 (1.262) 1.251 (1.126) 1.524 (1.147) 2.322 (1.195)
  Often 0.756 (1.226) 1.075 (1.09) 1.978 (1.111) 2.527 (1.167)*
  Always 0.486 (1.216) 0.856 (1.077) 1.512 (1.099) 2.432 (1.153)*
 LTCQ8. Safe outside home (Never)
  Rarely 0.606 (1.05) 1.295 (0.985) 0.395 (0.986) 0.094 (1.004)
  Sometimes −0.431 (0.778) −0.256 (0.719) −1.34 (0.718) −1.631 (0.74)*
  Often 0.009 (0.801) −0.389 (0.751) −1.811 (0.781)* −2.028 (0.835)*
  Always −0.736 (0.789) −1.309 (0.74) − 2.896 (0.788)* −3.197 (0.804)*
 LTCQ10. Dependant (Always)
  Often 0.645 (0.462) 0.516 (0.432) −0.308 (0.457) −1.145 (0.497)*
  Sometimes 0.276 (0.42) − 0.096 (0.394) −1.372 (0.469)* −2.302 (0.571)*
  Rarely −0.123 (0.446) −1.684 (0.481)* −2.200 (0.603)* −3.700 (1.091)*
  Never −0.562 (0.461) −2.276 (0.550)* − 1.996 (0.650)* −3.221 (0.811)*
 LTCQ11. Lonely (Always)
  Often 0.097 (0.588) −0.419 (0.53) 0.328 (0.581) 0.340 (0.634)
  Sometimes 1.097 (0.561) 0.234 (0.517) 1.015 (0.584) 1.218 (0.629)
  Rarely 1.349 (0.587)* 0.4 (0.55) 0.152 (0.724) 0.931 (0.728)
  Never 1.289 (0.566)* 0.627 (0.521) 1.732 (0.641)* 0.806 (0.735)
 LTCQ12. Stigma (Always)
  Often 0.307 (0.698) −0.466 (0.646) 0.432 (0.688) −0.258 (0.722)
  Sometimes 0.742 (0.662) 0.629 (0.605) 1.159 (0.663) 0.647 (0.682)
  Rarely 0.529 (0.67) 0.592 (0.624) 0.556 (0.713) 0.692 (0.737)
  Never 0.38 (0.665) 0.948 (0.615) 0.989 (0.719) 0.966 (0.751)
 LTCQ15. Unhappy (Always)
  Often −0.507 (0.633) −0.286 (0.597) − 0.469 (0.622) − 0.388 (0.658)
  Sometimes − 0.824 (0.604) − 1.037 (0.578) − 1.341 (0.621)* − 1.208 (0.676)
  Rarely − 1.262 (0.631)* − 1.631 (0.632)* − 1.780 (0.741)* − 1.004 (0.81)
  Never − 1.654 (0.640)* − 1.415 (0.631)* −2.019 (0.770)* − 1.320 (0.865)
 LTCQ19. Confident (Never)
  Rarely 0.496 (1.162) 0.221 (0.974) 0.144 (1.003) 0.283 (0.993)
  Sometimes 0.950 (1.014) 0.087 (0.825) 0.573 (0.86) −0.361 (0.863)
  Often 0.860 (1.014) 0.145 (0.826) 0.45 (0.879) −0.633 (0.9)
  Always 0.323 (1.003) −0.675 (0.814) − 0.342 (0.881) −1.223 (0.894)
  Constant −1.638 (1.561) 0.300 (1.272) 1.448 (1.218) 2.872 (1.221)*
Pain and discomfort
 LTCQ4. Control of daily life (Never)
  Rarely −0.796 (0.665) −1.903 (0.617)* −1.005 (0.643) −3.207 (0.795)*
  Sometimes −0.645 (0.666) −1.123 (0.613) −0.358 (0.65) − 1.793 (0.748)*
  Often −0.698 (0.697) −1.206 (0.653) − 0.97 (0.724) − 1.766 (0.888)*
  Always −0.997 (0.708) −1.736 (0.671)* − 1.216 (0.78) − 1.557 (1.177)
 LTCQ7. Safe at home (Never)
  Rarely −0.203 (1.396) −1.136 (1.252) − 0.105 (1.284) − 0.596 (1.457)
  Sometimes −0.675 (1.323) −1.88 (1.18) − 1.025 (1.224) − 0.978 (1.371)
  Often − 1.004 (1.319) − 1.888 (1.173) − 0.903 (1.218) −1.094 (1.401)
  Always − 0.573 (1.323) −1.758 (1.18) −1.401 (1.233) − 1.433 (1.41)
 LTCQ8. Safe outside home (Never)
  Rarely − 0.331 (0.551) −0.432 (0.536) − 0.35 (0.537) 0.309 (0.752)
  Sometimes −0.374 (0.526) −0.258 (0.513) − 0.47 (0.525) 0.135 (0.752)
  Often −0.373 (0.567) − 0.442 (0.56) − 0.675 (0.605) 0.252 (0.933)
  Always −0.751 (0.563) − 0.595 (0.561) −1.172 (0.637)* −1.409 (1.145)
 LTCQ10. Dependant (Always)
  Often 0.29 (0.345) −0.050 (0.329) −0.368 (0.348) −1.664 (0.578)*
  Sometimes − 0.16 (0.338) −0.715 (0.330)* −1.278 (0.391)* −2.034 (0.74)*
  Rarely 0.22 (0.374) −0.890 (0.394)* − 0.939 (0.483) − 15.902 (863.068)
  Never 0.208 (0.377) −1.286 (0.411)* − 1.41 (0.567)* −0.96 (1.069)
 LTCQ11. Lonely (Always)
  Often −0.301 (0.417) − 0.083 (0.433) 0.447 (0.433) 0.723 (0.658)
  Sometimes −0.232 (0.415) 0.835 (0.430) 0.55 (0.466) 1.048 (0.699)
  Rarely 0.075 (0.453) 1.126 (0.482)* 0.575 (0.562) −12.693 (565.764)
  Never − 0.775 (0.418) 0.672 (0.457) 0.478 (0.535) 1.103 (0.958)
 LTCQ12. Stigma (Always)
  Often 0.109 (0.514) 0.618 (0.499) 0.047 (0.504) −0.667 (0.665)
  Sometimes 0.819 (0.493) 1.057 (0.494)* 0.952 (0.5) −0.035 (0.636)
  Rarely 0.445 (0.504) 0.722 (0.511) 0.519 (0.544) −1.073 (0.855)
  Never 0.864 (0.51) 1.128 (0.520)* 1.356 (0.56) −0.701 (0.909)
 LTCQ15. Unhappy (Always)
  Often 0.463 (0.45) 0.140 (0.412) −0.329 (0.409) −1.389 (0.587)*
  Sometimes 0.965 (0.463)* −0.011 (0.437) −1.007 (0.458)* −1.479 (0.692)*
  Rarely 0.71 (0.498) −0.793 (0.494) −2.147 (0.637)* −2.276 (1.27)
  Never −0.045 (0.504) −1.414 (0.502)* − 1.878 (0.590)* − 2.574 (1.326)
 LTCQ19. Confident (Never)
  Rarely −0.749 (0.711) −0.479 (0.679) − 0.15 (0.712) −0.01 (0.868)
  Sometimes −0.97 (0.642) −0.676 (0.622) − 0.001 (0.659) 0.073 (0.83)
  Often 0.136 (0.665) −0.02 (0.654) 0.624 (0.708) 1.119 (0.967)
  Always −0.508 (0.654) −0.602 (0.643) − 0.067 (0.721) − 1.796 (1.399)
  Constant 1.786 (1.423) 3.638 (1.284)* 2.502 (1.341) 3.501 (1.451)*
Anxiety and depression
 LTCQ4. Control of daily life (Never)
  Rarely 1.227 (0.625)* 0.848 (0.597) 1.958 (0.683)* 1.642 (0.736)*
  Sometimes 0.496 (0.563) 0.165 (0.53) 0.907 (0.64) 0.167 (0.759)
  Often 0.563 (0.585) 0.016 (0.574) 0.708 (0.744) 0.162 (1.08)
  Always 0.135 (0.598) −1.225 (0.638) − 1.833 (1.281) 0.743 (1.227)
 LTCQ7. Safe at home (Never)
  Rarely −2.398 (1.624) −1.545 (1.606) −0.767 (1.689) −1.716 (1.694)
  Sometimes −2.161 (1.505) −1.507 (1.523) −0.94 (1.61) −1.289 (1.603)
  Often −2.377 (1.474) −1.526 (1.501) −1.224 (1.596) −2.486 (1.626)
  Always −2.495 (1.469) −2.34 (1.5) −1.682 (1.6) − 2.846 (1.647)
 LTCQ8. Safe outside home (Never)
  Rarely 0.996 (0.61) 1.558 (0.595)* 1.391 (0.663)* 1.701 (0.726)*
  Sometimes 1.017 (0.522) 0.857 (0.526) 0.558 (0.605) −0.316 (0.744)
  Often 0.658 (0.538) 0.737 (0.57) 0.035 (0.746) −1.057 (1.265)
  Always 0.931 (0.543) 1.637 (0.593)* 0.987 (0.806) 0.249 (1.188)
 LTCQ10. Dependant (Always)
  Often −0.039 (0.341) 0.01 (0.363) 0.339 (0.445) 0.386 (0.547)
  Sometimes −0.098 (0.344) 0.116 (0.379) 0.49 (0.499) 0.103 (0.733)
  Rarely 0.275 (0.386) 0.039 (0.47) 0.233 (0.704) −0.571 (1.213)
  Never 0.041 (0.402) 0.084 (0.531) 1.368 (0.812) −0.174 (1.27)
 LTCQ11. Lonely (Always)
  Often 0.912 (0.585) −0.537 (0.544) − 0.69 (0.598) − 0.887 (0.689)
  Sometimes 0.694 (0.531) −1.033 (0.498)* − 1.236 (0.582)* − 1.826 (0.775)*
  Rarely 0.501 (0.547) −1.182 (0.537)* −2.832 (0.904)* −1.817 (1.018)
  Never −0.292 (0.536) −1.721 (0.53)* − 2.612 (0.79)* − 2.31 (1.049)*
 LTCQ12. Stigma (Always)
  Often 1.636 (0.675)* 1.297 (0.626)* 1.599 (0.683)* 1.797 (0.777)*
  Sometimes 1.039 (0.575) 0.991 (0.523) 0.357 (0.612) 0.997 (0.738)
  Rarely 1.12 (0.582) 0.289 (0.554) −0.038 (0.7) 0.61 (0.891)
  Never 0.891 (0.585) 0.598 (0.558) 0.794 (0.698) 1.756 (0.92)
 LTCQ15. Unhappy (Always)
  Often −0.439 (0.566) −0.196 (0.54) − 0.981 (0.582) −1.431 (0.662)*
  Sometimes −0.807 (0.528) −1.396 (0.522)* −2.372 (0.607)* −3.357 (0.858)*
  Rarely −1.525 (0.559) −3.057 (0.64)* −4.473 (1.178)* − 3.361 (1.049)*
  Never −2.465 (0.586) −2.705 (0.642)* −4.287 (1.225)* −16.266 (421.364)
 LTCQ19. Confident (Never)
  Rarely 0.793 (0.843) 1.558 (0.819) 0.476 (0.894) 0.554 (0.934)
  Sometimes −0.016 (0.679) 0.778 (0.66) 0.196 (0.731) 0.207 (0.787)
  Often 0.072 (0.691) 0.548 (0.686) −0.163 (0.796) −0.574 (1.005)
  Always −0.048 (0.69) −0.141 (0.701) − 0.978 (0.888) −2.179 (1.41)
  Constant 0.817 (1.527) 2.121 (1.517) 1.725 (1.604) 2.469 (1.588)
  1. * p-value< 0.005