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Table 1 The PSS items divided into the two proposed subscales; Parental Stress and Lack of Parental Satisfaction

From: The Parental Stress Scale revisited: Rasch-based construct validity for Danish parents of children 2–18 years old with and without behavioral problems

Item Parental Stress subscale (PS)
3 Caring for my child(ren) sometimes takes more time and energy than I have to give
4 I sometimes worry whether I am doing enough for my child(ren)
9 The major source of stress in my life is my child(ren)
10 Having child(ren) leaves little time and flexibility in my life
11 Having child(ren) has been a financial burdena
12 It is difficult to balance different responsibilities because of my child(ren)
13 The behavior of my child(ren) is often embarrassing or stressful to me
14 If I had it to do over again, I might decide not to have child(ren)
15 I feel overwhelmed by the responsibility of being a parent
16 Having child(ren) has meant having too few choices and too little control over my life
  Lack of Parental Satisfaction subscale (LPS) – reversely scored items
1 I am happy in my role as a parent
2 There is little or nothing I wouldn’t do for my child(ren) if it was necessarya
5 I feel close to my child(ren)
6 I enjoy spending time with my child(ren)
7 My child(ren) is an important source of affection for me
8 Having child(ren) gives me a more certain and optimistic view for the future
17 I am satisfied as a parent
18 I find my child(ren) enjoyable
  1. aitems excluded from final models