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Table 3 Dietary habits according to nutritional status, QOL and nutritional status & QOL of the elderly in South Korea (N = 143)

From: Association between combinations of nutritional status and quality of life and food purchasing motives among the elderly in South Korea

 Nutritional statusaQOLbNutritional status & QOLc
High (N = 63)Low (N = 68)PdHigh (N = 71)Low (N = 70)PBest (N = 41)Worst (N = 45)P
Meal frequencye  0.302  0.189  0.214
 3 times a day92.183.884.592.987.888.9
 2 times a day6.314.712.77.19.811.1
 1 times a day1.61.52.80.02.40.0
Reason for meal skipping (multiple response)
 Sleep lately0.03.30.4971.71.61.0000.02.30.436
 Anorexia0.013.30.0075.17.80.7190.011.60.038
 Indigestion0.08.30.0591.76.30.3670.09.30.168
 Difficulty of food preparation0.06.70.1203.43.11.0000.04.70.136
Eating-related problem (multiple response)28.666.20.00026.865.70.00019.577.80.000
 Swallowing problems0.03.20.4981.61.51.0000.02.20.445
 Chewing difficulty17.942.90.00318.041.20.00413.948.90.007
 Anorexia3.67.90.4454.97.40.7212.86.70.661
 Indigestion5.417.50.0419.816.20.2882.815.60.146
 Nausea / vomiting0.01.61.0000.01.51.0000.02.20.646
 Constipation3.612.70.1010.014.70.0020.017.80.017
Snacks frequency
 3 times a day7.910.30.3875.611.40.0252.48.90.081
 2 times a day20.630.922.528.619.531.1
 1 times a day44.433.836.637.148.840.0
 Every other day3.27.41.48.62.411.1
 Almost never23.817.633.814.326.88.9
Frequency of dining-out
 1 times a day21.019.10.07518.318.80.01022.020.00.067
 1–6 times a week22.622.129.613.029.315.6
 1–3 times a month33.917.631.023.231.715.6
 Almost never (less than once a month)22.641.221.144.917.148.9
Change food amount (recently)
 No change88.975.00.10988.771.40.00495.168.90.015
 More-than-usual-intake1.65.95.62.92.44.4
 Less-than-usual-intake9.519.15.625.72.426.7
  1. Abbreviations: MNA mini nutritional assessment, QOL quality of life
  2. aMNA is divided by two categries: high (≥ 24) and low nutritional status (≤ 23.5)
  3. bQOL, assessed score using the SF-36, was categoried by percentage: high (≥ 50%) and low (< 50%) QOL
  4. cNutritional status and QOL were grouped by combinations of each category of MNA and QOL. Best, high nutritional status with high QOL; worst, low nutritional status with low QOL
  5. dP-values for differences between groups using Chi-square test for proportions. Values in boldface are significant (p < 0.05)
  6. eValues are expressed as percentages