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Table 1 Characteristics of the measures included in this study

From: A qualitative exploration of the content and face validity of preference-based measures within the context of dementia

Conceptual origin Generic health-related QoL Capability wellbeing and social care-related QoL Dementia-specific QoL
Measure EQ-5D-5 L [54] AQoL-8D [15] ICECAP-O [55] ASCOT [20] DEMQOL [44] (to derive the DEMQOL-U) a QOL-AD [30] (to derived the AD-5D) b
Items 5 35 5 9 28 + overall QoL 13
Dimensions c 5
Mobility;
Personal-care;
Usual activities;
Pain/discomfort; Anxiety/depression
8
(4) Independent living;
(3) Pain;
(3) Senses;
(8) Mental health;
(4) Happiness;
(3) Coping;
(7) Relationships;
(3) Self-worth
5
Attachment;
Security;
Role;
Enjoyment; Control
8
Control over daily life;
Cleanliness and comfort;
Food & drink;
Safety;
Social participation; Occupation;
Accommodation cleanliness and comfort;
Dignity
4
(5) Positive emotion;
(8) Negative emotion;
(6) Memory;
(9) Daily activities
13
Physical;
Energy;
Mood;
Living;
Memory;
Family;
Marriage;
Friends;
Self as a whole;
Chores around the house;
Fun things;
Money;
Life as a whole
Content development Domains based on expert opinion and literature review; labels identified in face-to-face interviews with convenience samples of lay respondents Previous measure (AQoL-6D), review; focus groups with members of the public and mental health consumers and carers, psychometrics In-depth interviews with older adults Previous measure (OPUS), literature review Review, expert opinion, qualitative interviews, psychometrics Literature review, interviews with people with Alzheimer’s Disease and caregivers, older adults, and experts
  1. aFive items of the DEMQOL (#1, #4, #8, #14, #24) are used to derive the DEMQOL-U classification system (positive emotion, cognition, relationships, negative emotion, loneliness)
  2. bFive items of the QOL-AD (#1, #3, #4, #5, #11) are used to derive the AD-5D classification system (memory, mood, living situation, physical health and do fun things)
  3. cEach dimension is measured by one item except for the AQoL-8D and DEMQOL, which contain multiple items per dimension (presented in brackets)